According to Erez Manela what were the consequences of the failure of Wilsonianism at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 for China?

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pohnpei397 | College Teacher | (Level 3) Distinguished Educator

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According to Manela, the failure of Wilson's dream helped eventually to radicalize China and move it away from liberalism and towards Marxism.

Manela argues that Wilson's ideas were embraced by nationalists such as Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-Shek.  These men wanted China to become stronger, but to do so along more or less liberal lines.  Their credibility was damaged, however, by the failure of Wilsonianism.  When it failed, many in countries like China started to lose hope in the ability of liberalism and the West to give them the freedom they wanted.  Instead, they turned more (as Mao Zedong did) towards Marxism.  This more radicalized group of activists, of course, ended up on the winning side, which is why China is now nominally communist.