According to Durkheim, how is order maintained in the transition from a traditional to a modern society.
In his works, Durkheim theorized the importance of re-establishing social cohesion in a modern industrial society. In his doctoral thesis The Division of Labor (1893), he argued that primitive societies are marked by mechanical solidarity, while more complex, industrial societies require an organic solidarity. Primitive societies could be divided into self-sufficient segments, while in modern societies all their segments must develop a sense of "mutual dependence" so that the conflicts between their different demands can be addressed and solved. Thus, contrary to many of his contemporaries, Durkheim did not idealize primitive communities finding their forms of solidarity induced and forced. To achieve this sense of organic solidarity, a new civic morality and and a new consensus must be constructed. The educational system is vital to this construction. Another important factor in maintaining order is the regulation of the economic markets and of the relationships between worker and employer. This external regulation of working conditions and the abolition of the forced division of labor should aim to give everyone equal opportunities for his/her talents.