There are at least two different ways to interpret this question.
First, this question may be referring to the authors’ views of what acculturation is. The authors present two ways in which people have traditionally looked at acculturation. They say that scholars have traditionally believed that acculturation would be unidimensional. That is, as Latinos acculturated into American ways, they would lose their Latino culture. There would be a zero-sum process in which any embrace of American culture had to be offset by a corresponding rejection of Latino culture. The authors do not believe that this view of acculturation is accurate. They embrace a bidimensional view of acculturation. In this view, people can, if they wish, become Americanized without necessarily losing any of their Latino culture.
Second, this question may be referring to the authors’ view of how acculturation affects Latino health outcomes. The authors clearly believe that, while the evidence is mixed, there are some health outcomes that are hurt when Latinos acculturate and some that are helped. For example, Latinos who acculturate are more likely to have bad health outcomes in areas such as the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. They are also likely to have poorer diets and to have more premature births, low birth-weight babies, and other poor birth outcomes. On the other hand, Latinos who acculturate are more likely to have access to health care and to feel healthy. In other words, the authors believe that the impact of acculturation on Latino health outcomes is mixed.