Snowball is able to lead the animals through wisdom, intelligence and organizational ability, even going to the length of studying the battles of Julius Caesar to prepare for battle with the humans, but sadly, in this novel, violence, cunning, deceit, betrayal and ruthlessness, all characteristics of Napoleon, win the day. Napoleon uses brute force--his dogs--to run Snowball off the farm. He then spreads the story that Snowball was a traitor, secretly in alliance with Farmer Jones, and cunningly makes Snowball a scapegoat when things go wrong. He changes the Seven Commandments of Animalism, confusing and deceiving the animals. He has his dogs kill animals he says were conspirators with Snowball, using violence to cement his control. He uses propaganda, most notably delivered by Squealer, who is a convincing liar, to keep the animals confused. He tells the animals, for instance, that they are better off living simple lives, and while they work ever harder for ever less food, he moves into Farmer Jones's vacant house and leads the good life. He lies about selling the ever faithful Boxer to the glue factory instead of giving him his promised retirement. Orwell based Napoleon on Joseph Stalin, who turned the communist revolution in Russia into state terror and totalitarianism.