(a) Describe the process in meiosis that ensures that both maternal and paternal chromosomes are passed on to each spermatozoon. (b) Explain why the genetic content of individual chromosomes in a spermatozoon most likely differs from the genetic content of individual chromosomes in a primary spermatocyte. (c) In some instances, meiosis of a primary spermatocyte with six chromosomes results in two spermatozoa that contain four chromosomes and two spermatozoa that contain two chromosomes. Predict the most likely cause. (d) A student claims that if the animal producing the spermatozoa has a mutation in a mitochondrial gene, the probability that any offspring will inherit the mutation is zero. Provide evidence to support this claim.

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There are multiple questions being asked here. The following answer will focus on the first two questions as they are quite closely related.

Meiosis is a process of reduction division. Students are often confused about the difference between mitosis and meiosis. The names are indeed quite similar, and both processes use prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. However, the end result of each process is quite different. The goal of mitosis is to produce a cellular copy of an existing cell. In humans, a normal, diploid body cell...

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