[4.3.165-173, 181-189] What effect has Macbeth's tyranny had on the people of Scotland?
Murdering a just, right and much loved King, Duncan, Macbeth's actions have displaced the rules of nature, the order of the universe has been disrupted by Macbeth's deeds. This is manifested on the night of the murder with destructive weather, animals going crazy, Duncan's horses cannibalize each other.
Scotland, under Macbeth's rule is described by Macduff as:
"Macd. Bleed, bleed, poor country!
Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure,
For goodness dares not check thee! wear thou
The title is affeer'd! Pare thee well, lord:
I would not, be the villain that thou think'st
For the whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp, And the rich East to boot" (Act IV Shakespeare)
He describes the suffering in Scotland to be worse and worse. Killing and mayhem have befallen the nation, there is chaos and disorder.
"Let us rather
Hold fast the mortal sword, and like good men
Bestride our down-fall'n birthdom; each new
New widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows
Strike heaven on the face, that it resounds
As if it felt with Scotland and yell'd out
Like syllable of dolour." (Act IV Shakespeare)