Mesopotamia rose to power in the 2334 BCE, mostly thanks to advances in technology.
Mesopotamia is famous for the fertile soil that existed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and the early inhabitants took advantage of this in a number of different ways. The early developments of irrigated agriculture took place in this region. It led to the rise of urban centers, and the eventually differentiation of labor. Eventually, metal-working, organized religion and writing, all of which made the civilization stronger. The food surplus allowed for the raising of armies, which were used to conqueror and consolidate control over vast regions.
Other advances that were important to Sumerian civilization include the creation of architectural marvels such as the ziggurat and walled cities.