What was the most significant criticism of the 1993 Society of Clinical Psychology Task force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures that looked at the results of psychotherapy-outcome research? a. the study was not comprehensive enough b. it used the terms empirically validated and empirically supported interchangeably c. treatments determined to be efficacious in controlled settings, may not be effective in clinical settings d. all of the above In 1993, the Society of Clinical Psychology convened a special task force (The task force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures) to look more closely at the results of psychotherapy-outcome research to determine which specific treatment interventions were most strongly supported by empirical research as being effective for particular kinds of problems.

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Now the general objection raised by a number of commentators is that whilst such trials are strong as regards internal validity, i.e., that the effects produced were due to the tested treatment and not due to other competing variables, they are weaker as regards external validity. This is because the clients may be atypical and highly selected, the therapists are trained in a specialised approach,... (Professor Henry Jackson FAPS University of Melbourne)

As the quote above shows, published by the Australian Psychological Society, the most important criticism is that while the findings were valid in controlled setting, the validity did not carry over to real-world clinical settings. The two greatest reasons for this were (1) that the clients were not a random sample of those who would have opted for clinical therapy but an "atypical" "selected" group and (2) that therapists in the study were especially trained in the approach used and had a manual to guide their work.

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