The 1960's was a turbulent time in United States history. Some amazing things happened scientifically, like the space race, but much of that period's history is focused around racial and political issues and events. In fact, many of the racial issues cannot be separated from the political decisions that either caused or affected the related racial event/issue.
I'll try to stay as politically focused as I can, but like I said, sometimes it's hard to isolate politics only.
Oct 4, 1957 -- The Soviet Union successfully launches Sputnik. While not a political decision for the U.S., that single event greatly affected the U.S. space race for the next decade. It also further deepened Cold War fears.
May 1, 1960 -- U2 spy plane shot down over Soviet Russia
Sept. 26, 1960 -- First televised presidential debate. These broadcasts do not reflect well upon Nixon.
Nov. 8, 1960 -- John F. Kennedy is elected president.
Mar. 1, 1961 -- Kennedy signs an executive order that establishes the Peace Corps.
May 5, 1961 -- Kennedy signs a bill that raises the minimum wage in stages for the next two years.
May 25, 1961 -- Kennedy tells the world that the United States will put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. It took everyone by surprise (even NASA).
Sept.29, 1962 -- Kennedy orders the National Guard to desegregate the University of Mississippi.
Oct. 22, 1962 -- Cuban missile crisis.
Dec. 14, 1962 -- Kennedy announces a plan for big tax cuts.
Nov. 22, 1963 -- Kennedy assassinated
July 30, 1965 -- Medicare bill
Aug. 30, 1967 -- First black supreme court judge
Nov. 5, 1968 -- Nixon elected president