1. The FCC (Federal Communications Commissions) is an independent government agency which is responsible for overseeing the television, the radio, and the telephone industries in the USA. It regulates all communications within the US, (wire, cable, or satellite) and as well as international communication which originate and/or end in the US. It abolished the FRC (Federal Radio Commission) in 1934, when the Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934, under Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration. The FCC makes sure that the main audio-visual media in the US is airing content which follows the standards for decency and appropriation, and has the right to revoke the broadcast licenses of TV networks and/or radio stations, if they air inappropriate content.
Aside from this, the FCC also regulates the 9-1-1 service, limits the way companies can advertise their products by using the telecommunication services, and makes sure that all citizens have equal access to the telecommunication service in the US. As of 1934,the FCC has five commissioners with a five year term for each, all appointed by the president of the USA. You can find information about the FCC’s current position on consolidation and ownership rules, as wells as more information about the FCC in general, here.
2. According to recent studies, there are nearly 192 million immigrants in the world, and more than 10 million of them live in America. There are many reason that people might emigrate, which range in complexity. The most common reason that people emigrate is better living and working conditions and opportunities. Another common reason is when the people wish to escape from the unsatisfactory socio-economic and political climates of their home countries.
There are several pros to immigration, which prove beneficial to the US. For instance, most immigrant will agree on taking up jobs that documented citizens of the country wouldn’t or couldn’t do, and they will do it for lower salaries or compensations, while also agreeing to work for longer hours. This might seem exploitative, but it does help the economy, especially if the immigrants have a good educational background and/or good skill sets. Being a country of various races, religions, ethnicities, and nationalities promotes tolerance, understanding, and multi-cultural appreciation.
However, there also some cons to immigration. Citizens may be concerned about illegal immigration and may treat immigrants unfairly, especially if the people living in poverty in the host country receive less benefits than the immigrants. Another problem is the labor exploitation of immigrants, which is very unethical and immoral. Finally, according to many analysts, the main issue with illegal immigration everywhere, and especially in the industrially advanced countries such the US, is the security. All people that immigrate illegally are undocumented. Obviously, these people are not a threat, but having a large number of undocumented people can greatly affect the legislation of the country, and provide a cover and an opportunity for illegal and criminal activities, and even terrorism.
3. Federalism is a federal principle or system of government, which unites several separate states or entities, by allowing them to keep their own political integrity. As such, it has several pros and cons. The main advantages of having a federal mode of political organization is that it promotes and allows diversity. Instead of conforming to one set of rules, principles and policies, each state is entitled to deal with its local problems in their own way. For instance, the political leadership of Michigan wouldn’t necessarily know how to solve local problems in California.
A federal system also provides better political stability because it redistributes the power. The state governments are, essentially, independent from the national government, and the local governments are, to a great degree, independent of the state governments. The national government is merely an oversight and a support system for the state and local governments.
Another advantage of federalism is that it encourages involvement and participation of all people, equally. In the US nearly a million people hold some kind of political power. This is very attractive, as people have families, friends, acquaintances, loved ones, neighbors, and so on, who work in politics, which gives them a sense of security and assurance.
However, there are also several cons to having a federal mode of political organization. For one, it can confuse the population in a way that a citizen of one state in the US might be unknowingly breaking the law of another state in the US. For instance, there are 6 states in the US which allow minors to drink on private property without parental consent, one of them being New Jersey. So if a minor were to drink alcohol in Alabama, for example, he/she would be breaking the law.
Another disadvantage is that people and groups of people may use it to protect their own interests and privileges, which can sometimes be selfish and unfair. For instance, in the past, people who were pro segregation of the whites and blacks, used federalism and their ‘civil rights’ to avoid being prosecuted for racism and discrimination.
Federalism can shake up a country's socio-economic climate and make the people feel unsafe. Because the power is dispersed throughout the country, no one can take full responsibility when, for example, a natural disaster occurs. If a hurricane destroyed a lot of property, no one knows who is responsible and who has to deal with the damage, which further delays the solving of the problem. Also, in a federal state, there is an uneven distribution of the government’s benefits and resources. One state can spend twice as much money on its health system, than another; furthermore, the hospitals in wealthier areas would spend twice as much as the hospitals in poorer areas.
4. You can find a detailed description of the differences between Federalists and Anti-Federalists here. As far as the Bill of Rights is concerned, the Anti-Federalists wanted to add it to the Constitution because it would have limited the power of the Federal government by protecting the citizens’ rights. Essentially, the Anti-Federalists wanted a more limited national government.