1. What elements of Indian culture spread and took hold in Southeast Asian states such as Angkor and Srivijaya in the early medieval era? Explain the significance of this trend.  

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The early Middle Ages in India (around the time of the fall of Rome in Europe) are sometimes known as the Gupta Age due to the fact that India was ruled at the time by the Gupta Empire. After the Gupta Empire collapsed, it was followed by the Pallava Dynasty which lasted well into the Middle Ages.

During both the Gupta Age and the Pallava Dynasty, India colonized a large area in Southeast Asia, sometimes referred to as "Greater India" (though many scholars consider this term inaccurate). India was more technologically and economically advanced than most of its neighbors at the time, and as a result many local cultures were quick to adapt to India's customs in the hopes of sharing their prosperity.

The spread of missionaries, scholars, and merchants to these colonies led to the spread of a number of aspects of Indian culture, including styles of food, styles of clothing, several Indian languages and writing systems (particularly Pallava Script), India's system of law and government, and the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Of these, Buddhism appears to have been the most enduring, as it is now the majority religion of most of Southeast Asia. Much of what we think of as Southeast Asian architecture (such as Angkor Wat) was also heavily influenced by Indian sources. India's Medieval colonies in Southeast Asia left an enduring impression on the local culture, language, and religion that persists today.