The transition from the Dark Ages or Geometric Period to the Archaic Period was marked by many different cultural changes, all of which reflected an increase in general prosperity. On a political level, the monarchic and aristocratic governments of the Dark Ages were often replaced by tyrannies, oligarchies, or proto-democratic governments. In pottery, which is usually used to establish chronology in archeology, the Geometric style pottery characteristic of the Dark Ages was replace by Orientalizing or Corinthian ware. Another major innovation was the development of writing. Use of Mycenaean Linear B has disappeared during the Dark Ages, and a new alphabetic script, based on the Phonecian developed for the Greek language. Marble sculptures (the archaic Kouros and Kore) and religious architecture (monumental stone temples) developed. The Greek city-states began to increase population dramatically, resulting in a period of extensive colonization.