1. The production of ATP is central to the survival of organisms. This production must be closely regulated to ensure that the needs of the organisms are being met. Considering the structure and function of enzymes and allosteric inhibitors, explain how the production of ATP is able to regulate itself. 2. Discuss the role of NAD+ and NADH in metabolism. Include in your discussion whether on not taking an NADH supplements would be helpful for physical activity.  3.Mr. Friedrich’s lungs branch off his digestive tract. This is an example of how new structures evolve from existing ones. Explain the evolution of lungs from digestive structures. 4. Plants are terribly, terribly boring. Describe the changes in plant structures over time as plants have moved onto land.  5.Why fruit? Explain what fruits are, and why Angiosperms go through the trouble of making them. 6.Poor William has a metabolic disease. He is unable to make the enzyme that performs the oxidation of pyruvate. This is unfortunate. Physicians discover that he has high levels of lactic acid all the time. This is also unfortunate. Poor William is put on a diet with almost no carbohydrates – only fats and proteins. Speculate on why and how this diet cures Poor William of his ills.  7. Describe the biochemical process that produce CO2, how CO2 is released into the atmosphere, how CO2 enters plants and is converted to a solid, and how plants then convert CO2 to O2.

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#3. This question is worded strangely, it seems like some important specifications are being left out. Nevertheless, the main function of lungs is to provide a means of getting oxygen into the blood. Lungs are not necessary to do this; there are plenty of creatures that acquire oxygen without breathing. The advantage of lungs is that they provide a large surface area with which the blood can more closely interact with, and uptake, the oxygen molecules, as compared to the exterior regions of the body or the digestive tract itself.

Because oxygen is necessary for cell respiration, we may assume that lungs evolved after the digestive tract, since it would be possible to acquire food AND oxygen directly through the digestive lining. Lungs became necessary both in order to increase the amount of oxygen available to a more active organism, and in order to replace the function of gills when animals moved onto land.

#5. Fruits serve two functions. Like other seed-dispersal mechanisms, such as nuts, they contain some of the nutrients necessary for the seeds within them to establish themselves once detached from their parent, but before they are capable of self-sustained growth. However, the more significant function of fruit is to enhance seed dispersal itself. By making fruits appealing to animals via their bright color and sweet taste, the fruit serves as a lure, encouraging an animal to eat it and then, at least hypothetically, the animal will defecate the seeds much farther from the parent plant than the seed would have been able to travel via gravity alone.

It should be noted that many fruits we are accustomed to are the product of hundreds of years of agricultural engineering, and the "real" fruit is often significantly smaller and less impressive than its grocery store counterpart.

#7. CO2 is produced as a waste product during cellular respiration, and released as a gas. A variety of enzymes catalyze the conversion of CO2 and other intermediary products into glucose (C6H12O6) although glucose is often given as an example of the general class of carbohydrates produced via these reactions, and is not the sole possible product. Also, the final part of this question poses a false correlation; the oxygen gas produced via photosynthesis does not come from CO2, but from H2O. This was confirmed via isotopic studies that traced the source atoms from introduction to product.

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