This era of European history can be neatly bracketed by the major events of the French Revolution in the late 1700's, and World War I in the early 1900's. Indeed, much of what is interesting to study in history occurs in "the lull between the wars." Conveniently, about midway in this era, in 1848, Europe was wracked with revolution, beginning once again in Paris and spreading to other countries attempting to reform their governments. Interestingly, it was also the year that Marx and Engels published the Communist Manifesto.
Much of Latin America, inspired by what the former British Colonies did in the North, revolted against their European masters. By 1830, much of the continent was composed of newly independent countries; the movement to break away from monarchical foreign control among the colonies spread back to Europe proper, and inspired its oppressed to alter or abolish their own governments. The conflicts mid-century were essentially the first large scale class conflict; hereditary titles holding political and economic power began to look dated in contrast to the prior revolutions in the New World and in France. The links provide more detail about Nationalism and the clashes of conservatism and liberalism.