Neale, Zora Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston 1891-1960
American novelist, folklorist, short story writer, autobiographer, essayist, dramatist, librettist, and anthropologist.
Hurston is considered among the foremost writers of the Harlem Renaissance, an era of unprecedented achievement in African-American art and literature during the 1920s and 1930s. Although her drama and fiction, which depicts the common black folk of her native Southern Florida, was largely unconcerned with racial injustices of the time, Hurston’s long-neglected works have undergone substantial critical reevaluation, particularly since the advent of the black protest novel and the rise to prominence during the 1950s of Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, and James Baldwin. In addition to publishing novels and plays, three nonfiction works and numerous short stories and essays, Hurston is acknowledged as an influential collector and reteller of black American folklore. Lillie P. Howard stated: “[Hurston’s] works are important because they affirm blackness (while not denying whiteness) in a black-denying society. They present characters who are not all lovable but who are undeniably and realistically human. They record the history, the life, of a place and time which are remarkably like other places and times, though perhaps a bit more honest in the rendering.”
Hurston was born in Eatonville, Florida, the first incorporated black township in the United States and the setting for most of her writing. At the age of fourteen, she left home to work as a maid with a traveling Gilbert and Sullivan theatrical troupe. In 1923, Hurston entered Howard University, a black college in Washington, D.C., where she published short stories in Stylus, the university literary magazine, and attracted the attention of noted sociologist Charles S. Johnson. With Johnson’s encouragement, Hurston moved to New York City in 1925 and subsequently secured a scholarship to Barnard College. While at Barnard, and later at Columbia University, Hurston studied anthropology under Franz Boas, a renowned anthropologist of the era. During this period, Hurston continued to publish short stories and began establishing friendships with many important black writers. In 1927, together with Langston Hughes and other artists, Hurston founded Fire!, a short-lived literary magazine devoted to African-American culture. Hurston’s collaboration with Hughes continued on the drama Mule Bone: A Comedy of Negro Life (1991), the source of which was the Hurston short story “The Bone of Contention.” Apparently displeased with Hughes’s additions to the story, Hurston later maintained that she was the sole author of Mule Bone and attempted to copyright the work in her name only in October of 1930, thus alienating Hughes. In the 1930s and 1940s Hurston’s reputation steadily grew, based upon the success of her novels and folklore collections. By 1948, after the publication of Seraph on the Suwanee and its dismal reception by critics and audiences, however, Hurston’s career went into steady decline. Bordering on destitution throughout the 1950s, she suffered a stroke in October of 1959, and died at the Saint Lucie County Welfare Home on January 28, 1960.
Hurston’s first published play,Color Struck: A Play in Four Scenes (1925) concerns a black woman’s obsession with skin color. Jealous and embittered by what she perceives as John’s preference for light-skinned blacks, Emmaline leaves him. Some twenty years later, John locates Emma and asks her to marry him. As she considers his proposal, she notices his well-meaning attention to her ailing, light-skinned daughter. Enraged, she condemns him for his supposed colorism. The disappointed John departs. Shortly thereafter Emma’s neglected daughter dies. The First One: A Play in One Act (1927) visits the biblical theme of Noah’s curse on his wayward son Ham: “His skin shall be black. … He shall serve his brothers and they shall rule over him.” Hurston uses the theme ironically in the play; Ham’s skin is changed to black and he is forced into exile, but he maintains his sense of pleasure in life. The 1931 black musical revue Fast and Furious contains several sketches by Hurston, which depart from the norms of the minstrel show in that they endeavor to present blacks without the trappings of stage stereotypes. This trend continued in The Great Day (1932). Representative of Hurston’s solo musical revues, The Great Day reflects her efforts to portray an authentic black voice on the American stage, and contains portions of what Hurston would later publish in the folktale-inspired stories of her Mules and Men (1935). The musical drama Polk County: A Comedy of Negro Life on a Sawmill Camp (1944) concerns a mulatto woman, Leafy Lee, as she travels south from New York in an effort to master blues music. Once she enters a Florida camp, Leafy Lee wins the friendship of Big Sweet who becomes a protector and teacher to her and marries the guitar-playing, My Honey. Mule Bone, set in Eatonville, Florida, recounts the rivalry of Jim Weston and Dave Carter over a woman, Daisy Taylor. Their conflict reaches a climax as both men claim to have killed a turkey for Taylor. A fight ensues, and Weston attacks Carter with a mule bone. The subsequent trial sees Jim Weston exiled from town, only to be joined by a now-reconciled Carter, who has since learned that the woman they were pursuing requires that he get a job.
Throughout her career, Hurston struggled to see her dramatic works realized on the stage. Despite achieving some recognition during her lifetime, including several prizes afforded by the periodical Opportunity, Hurston’s plays were largely neglected by producers and critics. Since her death, Hurston’s reputation and popularity have significantly grown, as evidenced by the reissuing of several of her works, including Their Eyes Were Watching God, in the late 1980s. By the 1990s the process of rediscovering Hurston’s work has led to a more substantial regard for her plays, particularly her collaborative drama Mule Bone. Still, most critical studies of Hurston have focused extensively on her private life, such as her well-publicized falling out with the co-author of Mule Bone, Langston Hughes. Nevertheless, as critical interest in her dramas increases, assessments of the cultural and thematic importance of her dramatic work have begun to appear. By the end of the twentieth century, most critics concur that what exists are only preliminary investigations of the plays, works that demand further, substantive analysis. Overall, Hurston’s dramas, like her fiction, are deemed significant for the insights they provide into the human condition. In a dedication to I Love Myself When I Am Laughing … and Then Again When I Am Looking Mean and Impressive: A Zora Neale Hurston Reader, Alice Walker summarized Hurston’s achievements: “We love Zora Neale Hurston for her work, first, and then again (as she and all Eatonville would say) we love her for herself. For the humor and courage with which she encountered a life she infrequently designed, for her absolute disinterest in becoming either white or bourgeois, and for her devoted appreciation of her own culture, which is an inspiration to us all.”
Color Struck: A Play in Four Scenes 1925
The First One: A Play in One Act 1927
Fast and Furious [with Clinton Fletcher and Tim Moore] 1931
The Great Day 1932
*The Fiery Chariot 1935
Polk County: A Comedy of Negro Life on a Sawmill Camp [with Dorothy Waring] 1944
**Mule Bone: A Comedy of Negro Life [with Langston Hughes] 1991
Jonah’s Gourd Vine (novel) 1934
Mules and Men (short stories) 1935
Their Eyes Were Watching God (novel) 1937
Tell My Horse [also published as Voodoo Gods: An Inquiry into Native Myths and Magic in Jamaica and Haiti] (nonfiction) 1938
Moses, Man of the Mountain [also published as The Man of the Mountain] (novel) 1939
Dust Tracks on a Road (autobiography) 1942
Seraph on the Suwanee (novel) 1948
I Love Myself When I Am Laughing … and Then Again When I am Looking Mean and Impressive: A Zora Neale Hurston Reader (fiction and nonfiction) 1979
The Sanctified Church (essays) 1981
Spunk: The Selected Stories of Zora Neale Hurston (short stories) 1985
*This one-act play, based on “Ole Massa and John Who...
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Criticism: Overviews And General Studies
SOURCE: “Hurston as Dramatist: The Florida Connection,” in Zora in Florida, University of Central Florida Press, 1991, pp. 121-29.
[In the following essay, Carson discusses Hurston's early “Florida” plays: Color Struck, The First One, and The Fiery Chariot.]
While a considerable amount of scholarly work exists on the writing career of Zora Neale Hurston, the bulk of it concerns her novels, in particular Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), which is considered by most to be her finest literary achievement. Her other works, including short stories, folklore studies, and the autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road (1942), occasionally attract some critical attention, especially in the last decade. Other dimensions of Hurston's long career, which spanned nearly forty years, have largely been ignored altogether or at best afforded only a passing mention. This is true of her several early poems, her journalistic work, and especially her plays. That Hurston's plays have not triggered any critical interest to speak of is interesting enough in itself, particularly when we consider that it was a play that brought her to the attention of Harlem Renaissance circles, and when we consider her lifelong interest in drama and the stage. The purpose of this chapter, then, is twofold: to examine, briefly, Hurston's career as a dramatist, and to point out the Florida aspects of her...
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SOURCE: “From Mule Bones to Funny Bones: The Plays of Zora Neale Hurston,” in The Southern Quarterly, Vol. XXXIII, Nos. 2-3, Winter-Spring, 1995, pp. 65-78.
[In the following essay, Lowe studies Hurston's dramatic works and the difficulties she experienced getting them into production.]
Zora Neale Hurston has recently been rescued from literary oblivion and installed as a major figure in the American literary canon. Her stature thus far, however, has stemmed from her success as a novelist, especially in her masterwork, Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). Some Hurston aficionados were therefore surprised when the play she coauthored with Langston Hughes, Mule Bone, had its Broadway debut in 1991. Did Hurston write plays as well? Indeed she did. In fact, one of her first publications was a play, and she never gave up trying to mount a successful production.
As a preacher's daughter, Hurston came by her dramatic gifts naturally. John Hurston, born a slave, overcame his humble origins by marrying Lucy Potts, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer and by heeding a call from God. A strapping man, he was a commanding figure in the pulpit and made the most of his booming voice and musical gifts. Zora Neale was born on either 7 January or 15 January 1891 in Notasulga, Alabama, not far from Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute. She was the sixth of John and Lucy's children....
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SOURCE: “From ‘Spears’ to The Great Day: Zora Neale Hurston's Vision of a Real Negro Theater,” in The Southern Quarterly, Vol. XXXVI, No. 3, Spring, 1998, pp. 34-46.
[In the following essay, Speisman surveys Hurston's career as a dramatist and her influence on American theater.]
On 12 April 1926, in a letter to Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston asked Hughes a question: “Did I tell you before I left about the new, the REAL Negro art theater I Plan? Well I shall, or rather we shall act out the folk tales, however short with the abrupt angularity and naivete of the primitive 'bama Nigger. … What do you think?” (Hemenway 115). From 1927 to 1930 Hurston had the opportunity to interpret what “had gone unseen for three hundred years” (113), and she shared many of her discoveries with Hughes, her colleague and friend. Traveling to isolated, rural African American communities, such as Magazine Point, Alabama, as well as her home village of Eatonville, Florida, Hurston came to realize that the folktales and songs she heard during her travels were not creations of the past, but of the everchanging present.
Pretending to be a gangster's girlfriend on the run in a Loughman, Florida, turpentine camp, she had become friends with Big Sweet, a “jook” woman who could out-talk, out-fight, and out-love her male counterparts in the camp. Big Sweet had been instrumental in...
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Criticism: Author Commentary
SOURCE: “Characteristics of Negro Expression,” in Negro: An Anthology, edited by Nancy Cunard, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1970, pp. 24-31.
[In the following excerpt, originally published in 1931, Hurston explains the view of African-American expression that informs her works, observing the drama, originality, and dialect of black communication.]
The Negro's universal mimicry is not so much a thing in itself as an evidence of something that permeates his entire self. And that thing is drama.
His very words are action words. His interpretation of the English language is in terms of pictures. One act described in terms of another. Hence the rich metaphor and simile.
The metaphor is of course very primitive. It is easier to illustrate than it is to explain because action came before speech. Let us make a parallel. Language is like money. In primitive communities actual goods, however bulky, are bartered for what one wants. This finally evolves into coin, the coin being not real wealth but a symbol of wealth. Still later even coin is abandoned for legal tender, and still later for cheques in certain usages.
Every phase of Negro life is highly dramatised. No matter how joyful or how sad the case there is sufficient poise for drama. Everything is acted out. Unconsciously for the most part of course. There is an...
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Criticism: Mule Bone
SOURCE: “Why the Mule Bone Debate Goes On,” in Critical Essays on Zora Neale Hurston, edited by Gloria L. Cronin, G. K. Hall & Co., 1998, pp. 225-28.
[In the following review, originally published in the New York Times on February 10, 1991, Gates considers Hurston's desire to portray authentic black culture in Mule Bone.]
Controversy over the play Mule Bone has existed ever since it was written by Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston in 1930. Not only did an authors' quarrel prevent the play from being produced, but its exclusive use of black folk vernacular has also provoked debate. In 1984, when the play became part of the publishing project of Dr. Henry Louis Gates Jr., the editor of Hurston's complete works, he sent a copy of it to Gregory Mosher, then the artistic director of the Goodman Theater in Chicago. When Mr. Mosher moved to the Lincoln Center Theater in New York, he brought the play with him, and eventually the theater decided to mount it. Dr. Gates and George Houston Bass, the literary executor of the Hughes estate, edited the play and served as consultants to the production. Mule Bone is being published this month to coincide with its world premiere Thursday at the Ethel Barrymore Theater on Broadway. Dr. Gates, the John Spencer Bassett Professor of English at Duke University, was elected to the board of Lincoln Center Theater last spring....
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SOURCE: “A Discovery Worth the Wait,” in Critical Essays on Zora Neale Hurston, edited by Gloria L. Cronin, G. K. Hall & Co., 1998, pp. 232-36.
[In the following review, originally published in the Los Angeles Times on February 24, 1991, Pacheco acknowledges the dramatic limitations of Mule Bone but favorably assesses its first production in 1991.]
In the Broadway production of Mule Bone, the characters gathered on the teeming porch of Joe Clark's general store in Eatonville, Fla., tease and cajole each other, laughing at the small-town follies at the heart of this 1930 comedy written by Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston.
Given the familiarity with which the all-black cast of 30 inhabit their roles, it seems as though these folks have been sitting on that porch forever. But Mule Bone is coming to the stage 60 years after writer Hurston and poet Hughes, the royal couple of the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920's, collaborated on the project. Featuring a half-dozen songs added by blues composer Taj Mahal, Mule Bone, subtitled A Comedy of Negro Life, opened earlier this month for a limited run. While some critics found the material thin, others acknowledged its place in America's cultural history.
Indeed, Mule Bone is one of the curiosities of this Broadway season—a Rip Van Winkle awakened to entertain audiences...
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SOURCE: “A Difficult Birth for Mule Bone,” in Critical Essays on Zora Neale Hurston, edited by Gloria L. Cronin, G. K. Hall & Co., 1998, pp. 229-31.
[In the following review, originally published in the New York Times on February 15, 1991, Rich enumerates several flaws in the Lincoln Center Theater production of Mule Bone, and observes that the play “feels like a rough draft in which two competing voices are trying to reach a compromise.”]
If ever there was a promising idea for a play, it is the enigmatic story of what went on when two giants of the Harlem Renaissance briefly collided in 1930 to collaborate on “a comedy of Negro life” they titled Mule Bone.
The writers were the poet Langston Hughes and the anthropologist, folklorist and novelist Zora Neale Hurston. Both were in their late 20's, and both had the same dream of a new truly African-American theater. Their goal was Broadway, which they hoped to liberate from the stereotypical minstrel musicals (the many progeny of Shuffle Along) and sentimental problem dramas (Green Pastures, Porgy) that then distorted the black experience on the mainstream stage. Yet Mule Bone was never finished and never produced because, as Hughes put it, “the authors fell out.”
What went wrong? No one knows for sure, despite the fascinating and painstaking efforts of...
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SOURCE: “A Tragedy of Negro Life,” in Mule Bone: A Comedy of Negro Life by Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, Harper Perennial, 1991, pp. 5-24.
[In the following essay, Gates details the collaboration of Langston Hughes and Hurston on the play Mule Bone, and describes the plot and historical influence of the drama.]
This play was never done because the authors fell out.
—Langston Hughes, 1931
And fall out, unfortunately, they did, thereby creating the most notorious literary quarrel in African-American cultural history, and one of the most thoroughly documented collaborations in black American literature. Langston Hughes published an account entitled “Literary Quarrel” as the penultimate chapter—indeed, almost as a coda or an afterthought—in his autobiography, The Big Sea (1940). Robert Hemenway, Zora Neale Hurston's biographer, published a chapter in his biography entitled “Mule Bone,” and Arnold Rampersad, Hughes's biographer, presents an equally detailed account in volume one of his The Life of Langston Hughes. Only Zora Neale Hurston, of the two principals, did not make public her views of the episode. But she did leave several letters (as did Hughes) in which she explains some of her behavior and feelings. In addition, Hurston left the manuscript of the short story, “The Bone...
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SOURCE: “The Folk, the Blues, and the Problems of Mule Bone,” in The Langston Hughes Review, Vol. XIII, No. 1, Fall-Spring, 1994-1995, pp. 33-44.
[In the following essay, Boyd offers an initial evaluation of Mule Bone, a plays she suggests requires further critical study. She examines the famous literary quarrel of its authors, Hurston and Langston Hughes, and maintains that although the play presents stereotyped characters and a weak plot, it features a tragic sensibility beneath its comic surface.]
Dream-singers Story-tellers Dancers Loud laughters in the hands of Fate—My people
Langston Hughes, “My People”
“big picture talkers were using a side of the world for a canvas”
Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God
We Who have nothing to lose Must laugh and dance Lest our laugher Goes from Us.
Langston Hughes, “Black Dancers”
Greatly anticipated as one of the most important recoveries in Black American literature, Mule Bone: A Comedy of Negro Life, written by Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston in 1930, was finally published and produced in 1991. Yet, despite the talent of the authors and hopes for the success of a black vernacular theater which Hurston and Hughes envisioned, Mule Bone was received as little more than an interesting Black...
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Criticism: Color Struck
SOURCE: “Re-evaluating Color Struck: Zora Neale Hurston and the Issue of Colorism,” in Theatre Studies, Vol. 42, 1997, pp. 5-18.
[In the following essay, Classon probes Color Struck as a work of social criticism and as the “tragedy of a darkskinned woman.” Additionally, Classon emphasizes the importance of this relatively neglected play to an understanding of Hurston's life and work.]
Zora Neale Hurston was born in Eatonville, Florida, an all-Black community, in 1891.1 While in New York attending Barnard College and studying anthropology under Franz Boas, she made significant contributions to the Harlem Renaissance. “From the 1930s through the 1960s, Hurston was the most prolific and accomplished black woman writer in America.”2 In spite of her historic accomplishments, Hurston spent her last years unnoticed and died in obscurity in 1960. It was not until the 1970s, when writers such as Alice Walker made a conscious effort to restore Hurston's status as the ‘foremother’ of African American literature, that Hurston was awarded the attention she deserved.3 Since then Hurston's work has inspired many African American writers and feminist thinkers. Presently, she is best known to the general public as the author of the novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). In recent years, there seems to be a “Zora fever,” as manifested in the...
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Hemenway, Robert E.“Mule Bone.” In Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography, pp. 136-58. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.
Details the collaborative writing of Mule Bone by Hurston and Langston Hughes, and their later falling out. Hemenway goes on to describe the play itself, calling it “an interesting attempt to transcend black dramatic stereotypes.”
Hill, Lynda M. “Staging Hurston’s Life and Work.” In Acting Out: Feminist Performances, edited by Lynda Hart and Peggy Phelan, pp. 295-313. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993.
Considers Hurston as an interpreter of black culture, viewing her dramatic work in relation to that of her peers and estimating the influence of her aesthetic on subsequent stage performances. Hill concludes that Hurston “is a progenitor, indeed and archetype, for theater artists who recognize that her life and work has empowered a new generation. …”
Perkins, Kathy A. “Zora Neale Hurston.” In Black Female Playwrights: An Anthology of Plays before 1950, pp. 75-9. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Brief survey of Hurston’s life and career as a dramatist.
Additional coverage of Hurston’s life and career is contained in the following sources published by the Gale Group: Authors...
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