Zionist Movement (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: At issue: Establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Result: Founding of the state of Israel; partition of Palestine.
The Zionist idea of an independent Jewish state received international expression in 1896, when Theodor Herzl published Der Judenstaat (1896; A Jewish State, 1896). The following year, the First International Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland (August 29-31, 1897), called for the creation of a Jewish state in the Jews’ ancient homeland. Small numbers of Jewish immigrants soon began establishing residences in the regions of Jaffa and Jerusalem, and in Galilean settlements. Except for sporadic incidents, these Zionist pioneers lived peacefully beside their neighbors.
In the Balfour Declaration, issued on November 2, 1917, Britain formalized its support for Zionism just as Britain was occupying most Middle Eastern territory near the end of World War I (1914-1918). Although Zionists believed the Balfour Declaration gave them the immediate right of open Jewish immigration, many among the non-Jewish population in Palestine felt threatened economically and socially, fearing the loss of their land and livelihood to the newcomers. Contradictory British policies would provide the framework for ensuing conflict.
The first major incident occurred in Jerusalem (April 4, 1920) and extended into four days of rioting...
(The entire section is 706 words.)
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