Zhu De (Dictionary of World Biography: Twentieth Century)
Article abstract: Zhu is one of the great military figures of the Communist Revolution in modern China. He is acclaimed as the “Father of the Red Army.” His service as commander of the Communist Army in the 1930’s and 1940’s attests that he was respected for his military ability as well as for his unflagging commitment to the Communist movement. In addition to his military contributions, Zhu helped establish the Chinese soviets, and he served in the Politburo and was Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
Zhu De was born in Linglung Village, Yilong County, Sichuan Province, China, on December 12 or 18, 1886. He was the third son in a family of thirteen children born to an impoverished tenant farmer. Hoping to escape their dire circumstances, the family decided that Zhu should be educated to qualify for civil service in the Ch’ing imperial government. Consequently, his formal education began in his fifth year in a private school in his village, but his lack of funds allowed him to attend only half of each day. His intellectual progress qualified him to pass the imperial examinations in 1906, but he decided to attend the Normal School at Ch’engtu and become a teacher. In 1908, he attended the School of Physical Training at Ch’engtu. After completing his studies, he and other graduates started their own school in Ilungshen, where Zhu taught physical education and...
(The entire section is 2578 words.)
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Zhu De (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: As the founder and builder of the Chinese Communist armed forces, Zhu transformed a farmer guerrilla army into a Soviet-style, conventional army, the People’s Liberation Army.
Zhu De participated in the 1911-1912 Chinese Revolution and then served as a battalion, regiment, and brigade commander in the Nationalist Army. In 1922, he went to Germany for military training and, while there, joined the Chinese Communist Party. In 1925, he went to study in the Soviet Union. On his return to China in 1926, he opened a Nationalist army academy in Nanchang, where he led an armed revolt and established a Chinese Communist Party military force on August 1, 1927, later celebrated as the founding day of the People’s Liberation Army. Using his organizational skills and Western military training, he commanded the Chinese Red Army in 1928-1936. He directed the departure from Jiangxi that became the Long March (1934-1935). He reorganized the Red Army into the Eighth Route Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and directed the unsuccessful Hundred Regiments Offensive (1940) against Japan. He served as People’s Liberation Army commander in the Chinese Civil War of 1926-1949, participating in the Hui-Hai Campaign (1949).
Zhu was also vice chairman of the...
(The entire section is 309 words.)