Young, Lester (Contemporary Musicians)
Saxophonist Lester Young had one of the memorable styles in twentieth-century jazz. Prez, or the President, as Young was nicknamed by singer Billie Holiday, played a spare and cerebral saxophone, though often a melancholy one. His tenor sax technique counterbalanced his peer Coleman Hawkins's lush, heavily ornamented tone. In his book The Reluctant Art: The Growth of Jazz, Benny Green described the difference between the two artists: "Where Hawkins is profuse, Lester is pithy; where Hawkins is passionate, Lester is reflective."
Young's presence on the bandstand, with his horn up and out at a 45 degree angle, was striking. Six feet tall with green eyes and reddish hair, Young was the archetypal hipster, wearing flashy double-breasted suits and pork-pie hats. His phrases, both in words and music, became legendary among other musicians. With the Count Basie Orchestra in the 1930s, Young defined the ideal for solo improvisations. In the 1950s he associated with the bebop innovators, such as alto saxophonist Charlie Parker, but he remained singular, a bridge between the hot jazz and the cool. Critic John Hammond, writing for Down Beat magazine in 1937, called Young "without a doubt the greatest tenor player in the country ... the most original and inventive saxophonist I have ever heard."
Born on August 27, 1909, in Woodville, Mississippi, Young soon moved to Algiers, across the river from New Orleans. His mother was a Creole who taught school; Young's father, Willis Handy, whom Young hardly knew, was an itinerant musician. Young grew up during the period in New Orleans when King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, and Sidney Bechet were creating jazz. Young remembered chasing after wagons loaded with players and distributing the musicians' handbills to the gathering crowds. Other jobs included shining shoes and delivering newspapers. When he turned ten, Young's existence drastically changed. His father returned and his parents divorced. Lester and his siblings, Irma and Lee, went with their father on the road, moving to Memphis, Tennessee, then to Minneapolis, Minnesota. Everyone in the family was a member of Willis Handy's band; Lester played drums and, later, alto saxophone.
Willis Handy was a stern taskmaster who demanded that his children learn to read music and who punished missteps. As a teenager, Lester evidenced a whimsical nature that often brought him into conflict with his father. Young split with his family as they were embarking on a tour through Texas and New Mexico in 1927. He then joined a succession of other bands. In 1928, while traveling with Art Branson's Bostonians, Young made the tenor sax his primary instrument, apparently because the band's tenor player was too slow dressing for performances. Young also preferred the larger sax's deeper tone, although the alto more commonly got the solo part.
The Bostonians folded in September of 1930, and Young joined Walter Page's Blue Devils. An unpaid hotel bill in Beckley, West Virginia, left Young and the other musicians stranded and their equipment confiscated. Young managed to get back to Minneapolis, where he played at the Nest Club, and then moved to jazz capital Kansas City. William Basie, who became known as "Count," played in Kansas City, as did Mary Lou Williams, Ben Webster, and, later, Charlie Parker. Young met Bennie Moten through mutual friend and saxophonist Herschel Evans. With Moten's group, Young slipped easily into the "Kaycee" jazz style, which emphasized the second and fourth beats, as in the blues, and displayed short riffs repeated in different variations. The saxophonist became known for quiet bursts of invention that stunned listeners with their succinct power.
Young dueled Coleman Hawkins of the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra in a marathon "jam" session in 1933, an event that cemented his growing reputation. He joined Count Basie in 1934 and worked with him on and off for the next six years. During this period, he made his first recordings in Chicago, including Lady Be Good. By 1938 Young was celebrated enough to perform with Benny Goodman at Carnegie Hall, and he joined Count Basie at the Famous Door and the Southland Cafe. Leaving Basie in December of 1940, Young went to Los Angeles to play with his brother Lee. World War II was looming, but Young was not interested in becoming a soldier. Eventually, a Federal Bureau of Investigations agent served induction notices on Jo Jones, the drummer, and Young at the Plantation Hotel in Los Angeles.
Young's experience in the army was a disaster. Shortly after his entrance, he was arrested for drug possession: barbiturates that he had received for an obstacle course injury and marijuana. Young did not use hard drugs but smoked marijuana and drank alcohol more and more heavily throughout his life. He was sentenced to ayear's imprisonment at Fort Gordon, Georgia, and was dishonorably discharged on December 1, 1945.
Opinions are mixed on whether Young was effective as a saxophonist after the war. Some critics thought that he became less creative and more eccentric. His popularity, however, increased steadily in the late 1940s, until he was making as much as $50,000 a year. His idiosyncrasies while performing became more pronounced. He would approach the bandstand in tiny baby steps and referred to everyone by the names "Prez" or "Lady." He reportedly became paranoid, feeling as if no one liked him, and apparently resented his own success, which made his most original solos standard fare. Young played at the opening of Charlie Parker's Bird-land in 1949 and toured Europe with Birdland groups and with Count Basie. In 1956 he was voted greatest tenor saxophonist ever by his fellow jazz musicians in a Leonard Feather poll.
Young was hospitalized several times in the 1950s for medical problems related to his drinking. By February of 1958 he had recovered enough to attempt recording again, but the results were weak. In the spring, he moved out of his house and into the Alvin Hotel on 52nd Street in New York City, across from Birdland. A woman named Elaine Swain nursed him there, and he gradually regained strength. He soon made an appearance with Jack Teagarden at the Newport Jazz Festival and arranged for new promotional materials. As a sign of his recovery, he made an engagement to play the Blue Note Club in Paris, France. The run proved to be his laste started drinking again and was forced to return to New York. Young died at his hotel on March 15, 1959.
Many saxophone players have credited Young as their inspiration. Young noted that his style was much like Billie Holiday's singing. In Holiday's autobiography, Lady Sings the Blues, Young is quoted as saying that he would listen to records of Holiday in duets with himself, and they would "sound like two of the same voices, if you don't be careful, you knowr the same mind or something like that." His personal and musical imagination are embedded in the textures of modern jazz.
(With others) The Jazz Giants, Verve, 1986.
The Complete Lester Young on Keynote (recorded 1944), Mercury, 1987.
(With others) Lester Young and the Piano Giants, Verve, 1988.
Live at Birdland 1951, Bandstand, 1992.
Jazz Immortal Series (reissue), Savoy Jazz, 1993.
The Master's Touch (reissue), Savoy Jazz, 1993.
(With others) Rarities (recorded 1941), Moon, 1993.
(With others) Lester Young in Washington, D.C. (recorded 1979), Fantasy/OJC, 1993.
(With others) The Lester Young Trio (reissue), Verve, 1994.
The Best of Lester Young, Pablo.
The Lester Young Story (Volumes 1-5), Columbia.
Count Basie: The Complete Collection of Count Basie Orchestra on Decca, MCA.
Kansas City Six and Five: Commodore Classics in Jazz, Commodore.
Prez and Friends, Commodore.
Saxophone Giants, RCA.
Pres: The Complete Savoy Recordings, Savoy.
Jazz at the Philharmonic: Bird and Pres the 46 Concerts, Verve.
Jazz at the Philharmonic: Lester Young Carnegie Blues, Verve.
The Sound of Jazz, Columbia.
Delannoy, Luc, Pres, The Story of Lester Young, University of Arkansas Press, 1993.
Green, Benny, The Reluctant Art: The Growth of Jazz, Horizon Press, 1963.
Hammond, John, John Hammond on Record: An Autobiography, Ridge Press, 1977.
Holiday, Billie, with William Dufty, Lady Sings the Blues, Doubleday, 1956.
Porter, Lewis, Lester Young, Twayne, 1985.
Simon, George T., The Big Bands, Macmillan, 1967.
Stearns, Marshall, The Story of Jazz, Oxford Press, 1962.
Wilson, John S., Jazz: The Transition Years, Appleton, 1966.
Down Beat, November 2, 1955; March 7, 1956; March 1, 1962.
Paul E. Anderson