Chang, H. C. “Young Master Bountiful.” In Popular Fiction and Drama. Vol. 1 in Chinese Literature. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1973-1983. Chang’s collection of critical studies and translations of Chinese literature includes a chapter on Wu Jingzi’s classic novel.
Hsia, C. T. “The Scholars.” In The Classic Chinese Novel: A Critical Introduction. 1968. Reprint. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, East Asia Program, 1996. Hsia studies six Chinese novels, including The Scholars, providing analyses of their structure, style, characters, and moral and philosophical themes
Lin, Shuen-fu. “Ritual and Narrative Structure in Ju-lin wai-shih.” In Chinese Narrative: Critical and Theoretical Essays, edited by Andrew H. Plaks. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977. Lin’s analysis of the narrative structure of The Scholars was first presented at the Princeton Conference on Chinese Narrative Theory held at Princeton University on January 21-22, 1974.
Roddy, Stephen J. Literati Identity and Its Fictional Representations in Late Imperial China. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998. Roddy examines three works of Chinese vernacular literature, including The Scholars, written in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, demonstrating how these works reflect new perceptions of the Confucian scholar-gentry.
Ropp, Paul S. Dissent in Early Modern China: “Ju-lin wai-shih” and Ch’ing Social Criticism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Ropp’s examination of The Scholars places the novel within the context of social and intellectual developments in eighteenth century China, demonstrating how Wu Jingzi used parable and example to criticize Chinese society.
Shang, Wei. “Rulin waishi” and Cultural Transformation in Late Imperial China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, Asia Center, 2003. In his analysis of The Scholars, Shang shows how the novel reflects the intellectual and literary debates in eighteenth century China. Also shows how Wu Jingzi depicts the Confucian elite’s attempts to retain moral and cultural authority. Includes a character list, a bibliography, and an index.
Wong, Timothy C. Wu Ching-tzu. Boston: Twayne, 1978. Contains a chapter about Wu Jingzi’s life, as well as discussion of the satire in his work and the “eremitic ideal” in The Scholars. One of the introductory overviews in Twayne’s World Authors series. Includes a bibliography and an index.