World War I Short Fiction
World War I Short Fiction
World War I was the first great international conflict of the twentieth century and is remembered as the first war in which modern technological weapons were used extensively, resulting in massive human casualties and conclusively changing the nature of combat. For many intellectuals, the utter devastation of the Western Front shattered the optimistic belief that a new era of human achievement and cooperation would emerge through continued scientific and social progress. Machine technology, which had previously been regarded as a source of prosperity and comfort, now aided in widespread slaughter, and the brutal nature of combat reminded observers that moral enlightenment could not erase humanity's essential animal nature. Even as it was unfolding, the war presented a vast human drama and an absorbing literary subject. Viewed historically, the World War I period remains among the most fascinating eras of the twentieth century.
Many European writers and intellectuals actually welcomed the outbreak of war in the summer of 1914; among them were young German and English short fiction writers inspired by romantic patriotism who volunteered for service. For the most part they offered a poetic summons to battle, espousing such traditionally valorous ideals as honor, duty to the fatherland, and courage in the face of the enemy. As the dehumanizing nature of machine-age warfare became apparent, old values were reassessed by combatants writing from the trenches, and the great battles of the Western Front became the settings of new, realistic portrayals of combat, often containing bitterly satiric portraits of commanding officers, whom many writers blamed for the sweeping casualties in the front lines. Under the uncertain conditions of trench life complicated by disease, inexperienced leadership, and the constant threat of death, the early enthusiasm and optimism of volunteers yielded to a pervasive disillusionment that haunted many writers of the World War I generation for the rest of their lives. Eventually, a compassionate tone—unknown in previous war literature—emerged in the works of several short story writers, who sympathetically portrayed enemy soldiers suffering the same dehumanizing experiences at the front. Although a number of battle chronicles and memoirs found publication in the postwar period, interest in war literature generally declined as society returned to peacetime concerns.
The achievement of women writers in the genre of World War I short fiction has been a growing area of critical discussion. The authenticity of women's literary efforts were questioned early on, as men were considered the only legitimate interpreters of wartime experience. Yet many women did participate in paramilitary and medical forces during the war and gained firsthand experience at the Western Front. The female perspective on combat as well as accounts of the personal experiences of women in hospitals and near battlefields have attracted much critical attention in recent years. Moreover, women on the home front wrote short fiction reflecting the anxiety, grief, and disillusionment felt during those years. These stories are regarded as valuable contributions to the canon of World War I literature.
Women's Writing of the First World War [edited by Angela K. Smith] (short stories, novels, sketches, diaries, letters, and nonfiction) (anthology) 2000
John Peale Bishop
“Resurrection” (short story) 1922
“The Tale” (short story) 1917
Vie des martyrs: 1914-1916 [The New Book of Martyrs] (short stories) 1917
Civilisation 1914-1917 [Civilization; written under pseudonym Denis Thevenin] (short stories) 1918
Dorothy Canfield Fisher
Home Fires in France (short stories) 1918
The Day of Glory (short stories) 1919
Raw Material (short stories) 1923
Der Mensch ist gut [Man Is Good] (short stories) 1918
The Red Commissar, Including Further Adventures of the Good Soldier Svejk and Other Stories (short stories) 1981
In Our Time (short stories) 1925
A Diversity of Creatures (short stories) 1917
Debits and Credits (short stories) 1926
Limits and Renewals (short stories) 1932
Ellen La Motte
The Backwash of War (short stories and sketches) 1916
D. H. Lawrence
England, My England, and Other Stories (short...
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Criticism: Overviews And General Studies
SOURCE: Natter, Wolfgang G. “What Is War Literature and Why Does it Merit Study?” In Literature at War, 1914-1940: Representing the “Time of Greatness” in Germany, pp. 11-34. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
[In the following essay, Natter discusses the definition of war literature through an examination of German World War I fiction.]
One of the most compelling challenges faced by German writers during the First World War and in the interwar period was how to structure an interpretation of meaning upon the events of the war. Whether they viewed the conflict as a moral-cultural mission or a defense against imminent territorial invasion, a struggle of culture between German Geist and Western materialism or an imperialistic battle waged solely for the benefit of national ruling classes, an event tragically devoid of meaning or, finally, as the birth of the new Germany, the issue of how to interpret and represent the war pricked deeply sensitive assumptions regarding virtually every facet of German civic life.
I describe in this [essay] many of the issues that a reader must weigh in determining the meaning of the war in the literature, particularly between 1914 and 1940. The [essay] also discusses why it is necessary to pursue the general question of how—through the interaction of military, academic, and publishing agencies—a particular knowledge about the...
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Criticism: Female Short Fiction Writers Of World War I
SOURCE: Higonnet, Margaret R. “Not So Quiet in No-Woman's Land.” In Gendering War Talk, edited by Miriam Cooke and Angela Woollacott, pp. 205-26. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993.
[In the following essay, Higonnet identifies and discusses several of “the misogynist barriers women had to overcome when they translated the war into words.”]
Patriarchal Poetry is the same as Patriotic poetry is the same as patriarchal poetry is the same as Patriotic poetry is the same as patriarchal poetry is the same.
World War I seemed to many contemporaries to defy linguistic formulation. Authentic speech, it has often been repeated, could come only from the trenches in the disabused words of a man who had “seen” combat. The very concept of a soldier-poet, which gained critical currency during World War I, privileges the lived experience of violence.1 Because of mass mobilization, the Great War indeed produced many writers who had seen combat, some of whom, like Isaac Rosenberg, actually died during the war. We remember today many of these men who recorded the Great War—American, English, French, and German names are all familiar.
Can authentic words be found by a woman? After all, women...
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SOURCE: Potter, Jane. “‘A Great Purifier’: The Great War in Women's Romances and Memoirs, 1914-1918.” In Women's Fiction and the Great War, edited by Suzanne Raitt and Trudi Tate, pp. 85-106. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
[In the following essay, Potter explores the transformative power of World War I on women's lives through an examination of women's romance stories and memoir writing.]
Romance and memoir are by far the most common forms used by women writers during the First World War.1 Most of the authors are unknown to us now. The works themselves are not ‘great literature’, but they are of literary and historical interest for what they say about the place of women in, and their attitudes towards, the Great War.
The texts I shall examine in this chapter all share a common theme: that of the transformative power of war. They also share the eugenic anxieties about physical, mental, and spiritual deterioration which emerged in Britain towards the end of the nineteenth century. If society was suffering from a ‘degenerative’ disease, ‘a falling-off from original purity, a reversion to less complex forms of structure’,2 then war was a means of regeneration and purification. It was a eugenic good. The ‘conservative polemic of popular fiction’3 had a number of ‘unfit’ targets. Among them were exotic and erotic artistic...
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SOURCE: Higonnet, Margaret R. Introduction to Nurses at the Front: Writing the Wounds of the Great War, edited by Margaret R. Higonnet, pp. vii. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2001.
[In the following essay, Higonnet asserts that the fiction of Ellen Newbold La Motte and Mary Borden, two American nurses who volunteered for service during World War I, provides a valuable contribution to the canon of war literature.]
It was the war that had taken me to France,” recollected the novelist and poet Mary Borden.1 At the very moment when advancing armies were driving refugee women and children away from their homes in the battle zones of Belgium and Poland, the Great War was drawing other women toward the line of fire. In the early days of the war, a desire to serve where the need was greatest rallied women of all ages and from many countries who were “as eager to get to the Front as any Boy.”2
But how to get to the front? Bureaucratic red tape slowed the passage of eager women to the war zone. The American Margaret Hall wrote from Paris despairingly, “I have no hopes of getting anywhere near the front. The Red Cross does not send women near.”3 Military regulations, social prohibitions, and political resistance all impeded women's efforts, until several years of catastrophic losses made the mobilization of womanpower necessary. Nonetheless, old and...
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Criticism: Central Powers
SOURCE: Pynsent, Robert. “The Last Days of Austria: Hašek and Kraus.” In The First World War in Fiction: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Hoger Klein, pp. 136-48. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1976.
[In the following essay, Pynsent finds parallels between the satirical military stories of Jaroslav Hašek and the drama of Karl Kraus.]
Most Czech First World War literature concerns the establishment of a Czechoslovak state. For all its horrors the war was in the end positive. Sassoon's bird suddenly burst out singing rather more meaningfully for Czechs and Slovaks than for the hung-over British, French, or Germans. Few Czech writers of war fiction had no political axe to grind and not many of them could squeeze any humour out of the war. Few tried to create characters, to give any sort of psychological interpretation of their warring heroes' actions; usually their heroes are ideological types. After the aristocratic individualism of the 1890s the war provided an opportunity to become anti-individualistic, to write collective novels demonstrating the collective labour-pains of the new state. To do this sincerely was a problem, since most Czechs had been either indifferent to the war or more or less kaisertreu, defending by word and deed the Habsburg Monarchy.
Whether they concern the hinterlands (e.g. Hora, The Hungry Year),1 the fronts (e.g....
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Criticism: German Writers Of Short Fiction
SOURCE: Hewett-Thayer, Harvey W. “The Novel of the Great War.” In The Modern German Novel: A Series of Studies and Appreciations, pp. 214-53. Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1924.
[In the following essay, Hewett-Thayer provides a survey of German World War I novels and short fiction, asserting that the fiction of period offers valuable insight into the German nationalistic psychology.]
In discussing contemporary affairs it is far easier to be diverting than to be comprehensive or penetrating. This circumstance lends support to the familiar saying that criticism of current literature is merely “conversation.” Any attempt at critical evaluation of current work becomes peculiarly presuming when conditions in the world at large tend to produce a torrent of partisanship which engulfs author, reader, and critic. The possible few who stand aside are incapable of valid judgments; an aloofness which would permit the requisite perspective would at the same time betoken an almost incredible incapacity for sympathy or an absorption in other interests which would be equally disqualifying.
The German novel of the war period arose at a time when it is hardly an exaggeration to say that there were no unbiassed persons in the belligerent lands, and few indeed, perhaps none, anywhere else. The whole world was caught up by a flaming flood, which in subsiding, has left most people in a kind of...
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SOURCE: Natter, Wolfgang G. “Remembering the Body: Bruno Vogel's Es Lebe Der Krieg! Ein Brief” In Literature at War, 1914-1940: Representing the “Time of Greatness” in Germany, pp. 192-202. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
[In the following excerpt, Natter demonstrates both how Bruno Vogel's Es Lebe Der Krieg! Ein Brief and its usage of the letter form bear witness to the conditions in Germany affecting the literary representation of World War I in three distinct phases: the war years, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany.]
Even while the four-to-one ratio between war-affirmative and antiwar books published as of 1933 suggests the unequal footing of political-aesthetic forces, the government's role in guiding the representation of the war during the Weimar period, though much diminished compared with its role of 1916-1918, cannot be discounted. Although the Republic had proclaimed that “censorship does not take place,” the controversy over Bruno Vogel's war book Es lebe der Krieg! Ein Brief (Long Live War! A Letter) shows that it in fact did.1 Vogel describes the war legacy as he saw it in 1924, and consequently the commemoration of the war as a matter of contestation emerged as the central issue.
In writing about Long Live War! I am explicitly directing attention to a work that is one of a number of forgotten First World...
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Criticism: Entente/Allied Alliance
SOURCE: Darrohn, Christine. “‘Blown to Bits!’: Katherine Mansfield's ‘The Garden Party’ and the Great War.” Modern Fiction Studies 44, no. 3 (fall 1998): 513-39.
[In the following essay, Darrohn maintains that Katherine Mansfield's well-known story “The Garden Party” provides insight into how society struggled to recover from the brutality of World War I, a “war that jeopardizes the integrity of physical bodies as well as the stability of social categories.”]
“Blown to bits!”
That is how Katherine Mansfield, still in shock just a few days after learning of her brother's death in the war, described him to a friend. Twenty-one-year-old Leslie “Chummie” Beauchamp had been stationed in France for less than a month when on 7 October 1915, as he was giving a hand grenade demonstration, a defective grenade blew up in his hand with a force so strong it killed both himself and his sergeant (Alpers 183). Mansfield's succinct description of her brother's death is brusque and colloquial but also literally true of uncountable soldiers who fought in the Great War. In her semiautobiographical novel We That Were Young, Irene Rathbone describes the wounded soldiers whom women in the Voluntary Aid Detachment (V.A.D.) routinely tended: men with “limbs which shrapnel had torn about and swollen into abnormal shapes, from which yellow pus poured when the bandages were...
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Criticism: English Writers Of Short Fiction
SOURCE: Ross, Charles L. “D. H. Lawrence and World War I on History and the ‘Forms of Reality’: The Case of England, My England.” Franklin Pierce Studies in Literature (1982): 11-21.
[In the following essay, Ross examines Lawrence's treatment of World War I in the two versions of his story “England, My England.”]
Historians are wary of using fiction as a source of historical knowledge. Thus, A. J. P. Taylor writes: “Most novels are really set twenty or thirty years back, whether avowedly or not. Thus Galsworthy, Joyce, and even, I think, D.H. Lawrence are purely prewar in spirit.”1 An historian's unease with the anachronistic spirit of fiction has its mirror image in the reluctance of many critics to view literature as an expression of history. Poetic justice aside, such a divorce of historical truth and literary truth misrepresents the intentions of a novelist like D.H. Lawrence who sought to trace the roots of the War, to comment upon its spirit through the “indirect and ultimate” medium of art.2
Several months after the outbreak of the Great War, Lawrence explained his conception of the artist's role in a letter to Harriet Monroe (American poetess whose country hadn't yet entered the War):
It is the business of the artist to follow [the War] home to the heart of the individual fighters—not to talk in...
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SOURCE: Newsom, G. H. “‘Sea Constables’ and the Blockade of January 1915.” The Kipling Journal 58, no. 229 (March 1984): 12-29.
[In the following essay, Newsom places Rudyard Kipling's “Sea Constables” within historical context—English-American relations before America's entry into World War I and the sea blockade off the coast of England in 1914.]
THE DATE OF THE STORY
“Sea Constables” was first published in the American magazines, Metropolitan and Nash's, in September and October 1915.1 It was not published again until Debits and Credits in September 1926. I have compared Nash's with Debits and Credits; as one would expect, the latter version is more polished and more economical in its language.
The story consists of the conversation of three officers of the R.N.V.R. [Winchmore, Portson and Maddingham] and one regular officer of the Royal Navy [Tegg] over a comprehensive dinner at a West End restaurant. They are mainly concerned to describe their various operations in connection with an unnamed neutral vessel, with which each had had trouble on patrol very shortly before. One of them remarks2 that, if he had been told last summer what he would be doing “this spring”, he would hardly have believed it. In the original magazine version it is not “this spring” but “this...
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SOURCE: Murray, Robert Edward. “Wyndham Lewis and His Fiction of the First World War” Journal of the Short Story in English 14 (spring 1990): 41-62.
[In the following essay, Murray views Wyndham Lewis's body of World War I short stories as “an original type of war literature” and “an integral part of his development as a writer.”]
WYNDHAM LEWIS AND HIS FICTION OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The Great War of 1914-18 was the single most important influence on the development of many European intellectuals, including the English Modernist writer and painter Percy Wyndham Lewis. The general effect of this influence was political in the sense that the issues brought up by the war, such as nationalism, socialist revolution and fascist reaction and the moral dilemma of pacificism, formed the basis of the ideological conflict of the period between the wars in which Lewis was a keen participant. Consequently, it can be seen that there is a definite link between literature and politics within Lewis's own framework of thought. This was manifested in a unique way in his post-war work, particularly in the novel The Childermass of 1928.
The immediate effect of the war on Lewis was to end the Vorticist art movement of which he was the leader and subsequently the first stage of his experiment in literary modernism. This sought to ally the media of painting and...
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SOURCE: Clarke, David. “Rumours of Angels: A Legend of the First World War.” Folklore 113 (2002): 151-73.
[In the following essay, Clarke asserts that Arthur Machen's “The Bowmen” was inspired by the Angel of Mons legend, which offered encouragement to the British troops during World War I.]
It's true, Sister. We all saw it. First there was a sort of a yellow mist like, sort of risin' before the Germans as they came to the top of the hill, come on like a solid wall they did—springing out of the earth just solid, no end to ‘em. I just gave up. No use fighting the whole German race, thinks I; it's all up with us. The next minute comes this funny cloud of light, and when it clears off there's a tall man with yellow hair in golden armour, on a white horse, holding his sword up, and his mouth open as if he was saying, “Come on boys! I'll put the kybosh on the devils.” … The minute I saw it, I knew we were going to win. It fair bucked me up—yes, sister, thank you. I'm as comfortable as can be (Lancashire Fusilier describes the Battle of Mons to nurse Phyllis Campbell; “The Angels of Mons.” London Evening News [31 July 1915], 7).
… It was strong evidence, as I say. Or, rather, it would have been strong evidence but for one circumstance—there was not one word of truth in it. Or, in the stronger phrase of...
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Criticism: French Writers Of Short Fiction
SOURCE: Knapp, Bettina L. “‘You Hear! You Hear! It's War!’.”1 In Georges Duhamel, pp. 46-57. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972.
[In the following essay, Knapp maintains that Georges Duhamel's two short fiction collections focusing on World War I, The New Book of Martyrs and Civilization, express the inhumanity of war and the need for compassion in the world.]
No sooner had hostilities broken out in 1914 than Duhamel volunteered as an army doctor. He served for fifty-one months, he tells us in his biography, in a mobile surgical unit not far from the front. In his four years of service, he performed two thousand operations and cared for four thousand wounded.
The ghastly sights Duhamel saw about him, coupled with the constant toil required of a surgeon, had a traumatic effect upon this sensitive young man. He was seeing life for the first time, in its most painful, primitive, brutal, and yet most courageous aspects. Faced with dying in all stages and forms, Duhamel empathetically experienced the fears and anguishes of those who were drawing their last breaths, of those who would return to civilian life maimed and abnormal, Duhamel did not react to the spectacle negatively; this holocaust taught him the meaning of life—that most precious gift given to man—and how it could be experienced most effectively.
During the early stages of the...
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Criticism: Associated Power
SOURCE: Tulloss, Thomas. “Et Ego in Arcadia: Death in ‘Resurrection,’ John Peale Bishop's World War One Fiction.” Focus on Robert Graves and His Contemporaries 1, no. 7 (1988): 18-23.
[In the following essay, Tulloss views John Peale Bishop's “Resurrection” as an anti-romantic, naturalistic perspective on the destruction of war and a part of the “post-World War re-evaluation of the optimism implicit in pastoral and romantic traditions in American literature as it had existed before the European conflict.”]
John Peale Bishop, whose literary reputation has settled comfortably within the middle rank of American writers published between the World Wars, was one whose 1918 experiences of the battlefields of the first great conflict influenced his work profoundly, as was the case with other, better known authors. The pastoral spirit that had existed pre-war—before “the lights went out all over”—found itself invaded and superceded by a fascination with the naturalistic and the grotesque that tempered and improved, rather than diminished, his work, as it did for many other writers of that singular generation. This is most evident in the strength of his descriptive passages based on insights into and obsession with death and decay. This theme runs unrelentingly through Bishop's short story “Resurrection,” and planted a seed which sent its tendrils through his literary work for the...
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SOURCE: Farr, Vanessa A. “Keeping the Home Fires Burning: Dorothy Canfield and the Domestic Space of the Great War.” Focus on Robert Graves and His Contemporaries 2, no. 3 (spring 1995): 16-20.
[In the following essay, Farr argues that Dorothy Canfield Fisher's stories set during World War I “deserve a close analysis within the framework of the feminist theories of militancy that have emerged in the last few decades.”]
Dorothy Canfield, who had lived in France for periods as a child and spoke French fluently, returned to that country with her own small children during the Great War, where she worked with the war blind while her husband trained ambulance drivers. Her impressions of the conflict, written in the form of semi-autobiographic short stories, are collected in three volumes: Home Fires in France (1918), The Day of Glory (1919) and Raw Material (1923). Unlike two of her fellow countrywomen, Edith Wharton and Willa Cather, whose World War I writing has continued, however sporadically, to attract critical attention, Canfield's tales have been almost completely overlooked. The primary reason for this is that the reactions of non-combatants—particularly women—to their wartime experiences are traditionally ignored by the men whose opinions have shaped our literary canon. Wharton's and Cather's writings on the war have survived only because the complete oeuvres of...
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SOURCE: Olin-Ammentorp, Julie. “‘Not Precisely War Stories’: Edith Wharton's Short Fiction from the Great War.” Studies in American Fiction 23, no. 2 (autumn 1995): 153-72.
[In the following essay, Olin-Ammentorp traces Edith Wharton's reaction to World War I as viewed through her short stories.]
On June 28, 1915, Edith Wharton wrote to her publisher Charles Scribner regarding both her experiences in wartime France and her plans for writing in the near future. “I have been given such unexpected opportunities for seeing things at the front,” she reported, “that you might perhaps care to collect the articles (I suppose there will be five) in a small volume to be published in the autumn”—the volume that was to become Fighting France. She added,
Some months ago I told you that you could count on the completion of my novel by the spring of 1916 [the never-completed novel Literature]; but I thought then that the war would be over by August. Now we are looking forward to a winter campaign and the whole situation is so overwhelming and unescapable that I feel less and less able to turn my mind from it. May I suggest, during the next six months, giving you instead four or five short stories, not precisely war stories, but on subjects suggested by the war?1
Wharton never wrote the “four or five short...
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SOURCE: Cohen, Milton A. “Soldiers' Voices in In Our Time: Hemingway's Ventriloquism.” The Hemingway Review 20, no. 1 (fall 2000): 22-9.
[In the following essay, Cohen identifies the universality of combat experience and the difficulty of adjustment after the war as unifying themes in Ernest Hemingway's short fiction collection In Our Time and contends that different voices in the various stories represent Hemingway's view of war.]
In Our Time echoes with the voices of soldiers—soldiers from different nations, ranks, battle theaters, even wars. Of the fourteen stories, sixteen chapters, and introduction (“On the Quai at Smyrna”), twelve pieces, evenly dispersed between stories and chapters, concern or allude to war. We hear the voices (or voiced thoughts) of thirteen separate soldiers and encounter one poor listener, Rinaldi. (For reasons I'll explain shortly, I'm counting each appearance of Nick as separate.) In those pieces that deal directly with war, three voices are distinctly British, belonging to a naval officer evacuating civilians in 1922 during the Greco-Turkish war (“On the Quai at Smyrna,”) and to one or more army officers at Mons in World War I (Chapters III and IV). Two voices belong to French officers marching to the Champagne in Chapter I. The remaining voices speak American English, including the kitchen-corporal narrator of Chapter I; “Nick,” a...
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SOURCE: Quinn, Patrick J. “The Enemy Within.” In The Conning of America: The Great War and American Popular Literature, pp. 101-31. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001.
[In the following essay, Quinn considers several American novels and short stories that functioned as propaganda to turn the United States against Germany and rally Americans to enter World War I.]
Part of the problem with propaganda attempts to generate American interest in the Allied side was that the bulk of the country, rightly, did not see the battles being fought in France and Belgium as particularly relevant to their daily existence The conception of a global village was still decades away. Admittedly, the atrocity stories made for frightful reading in the newspapers, but most Americans in the Midwest or West Coast could observe their German neighbors going about their daily business and could not imagine them as the “blond beast” the East Coast newspapers were trying to portray. The non-East Coasters saw the sinking of the Lusitania as a tragedy, but they also wondered why Americans would be traveling on a British ship into the war zone unless they were foolhardy. Common-sense made it obvious that taking a risk like that was silly. The Midwesterner was not particularly worried about the prospect of a naval invasion of Kansas or Iowa, nor did the prospect of traveling 1200 miles to Plattsburg to play at being a soldier offer much...
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Aldridge, John W. After the Lost Generation: A Critical Study of the Writers of the Two Wars, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951, 263 p.
Survey of the writers of the lost generation, focusing on Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and John Dos Passos.
Blanchard, Lydia. “Lawrence on the Fighting Line: Changes in Form of the Post-War Short Fiction.” The D. H. Lawrence Review 16, no. 3 (fall 1983): 235-46.
Investigates the reasons for Lawrence's lack of short story production during World War I.
Cushman, Keith. D. H. Lawrence at Work: The Emergence of the Prussian Officer Stories, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978, 239 p.
Chronicles Lawrence's revisions of the stories in The Prussian Officer and Other Stories.
Cruickshank, John. Variations on Catastrophe: Some French Responses to the Great War, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 219 p.
Elucidates French literary responses to World War I.
Field, Frank. British and French Writers of the First World War: Comparative Studies in Cultural History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, 280 p.
Compares the experiences of France and Britain during the war years as revealed in the work of some of their most prominent writers....
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