Historical Background (Identities & Issues in Literature)
In 1933, Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, was appointed chancellor of Germany. He immediately began to prepare for war, rearming the country, engaging in aggressive foreign policy, and establishing dictatorial powers for himself. German rearmament and aggression were in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, which Germany had signed at the end of World War I, and which the Nazi Party repudiated. Even after Hitler annexed Austria and invaded Czechoslovakia in 1938, attempts were made by other European powers to placate him. When Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, however, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. The war of the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria) against the Allied powers (Great Britain and its allies, France, China, Denmark, Greece, Norway, and Yugoslavia) had begun.
The Soviet Union, initially at uneasy peace with Germany, went to war against Germany when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Japan, having gone to war against China in 1936, joined the Axis in 1940 and attacked the United States in 1941. The United States thereupon entered the war in 1941 on the Allied side, declaring war on Japan, Germany, and Italy.
World War II was truly a world war, with nations around the world involved in theaters of war around the world. World War II was also a total war; all targets, military and civilian, were considered legitimate, and all means of war, including the bombing of cities, were employed. Total warfare meant that entire societies were affected. The war was global; few people on the planet were completely unaffected. Some of history’s most terrible atrocities took place during World War II, including the Holocaust (the systematic murder of approximately ten million civilians that the Nazis considered unworthy of life) which claimed the lives of approximately six million Jews.
World War II ended with the defeat of Italy in April, 1945, of Germany in May, and of Japan in August. The United States hastened the surrender of Japan with the first use in history of atomic weapons; this act also may be said to be a symbol of the rise of United States to the level of the world’s preeminent power as a result of World War II. The Allies, victorious, made arrangements of territory and political alliance that deeply affected the world thereafter.
American Literature (Identities & Issues in Literature)
Most critics regard Norman Mailer’s The Naked and the Dead (1948) as the best American novel to come out of World War II. Some prefer the works of James Jones. Both authors based their books on their personal experiences, Mailer in the Philippines and Jones at Pearl Harbor, on Guadalcanal, and in a stateside hospital. Mailer’s book is the story of an infantry platoon that participates in an invasion of a Japanese-held island.
Jones intended to write a trilogy based on his World War II experiences, but died before he could finish Whistle (1978). Jones was a soldier stationed on the island of Oahu before and during the attack on Pearl Harbor. From Here to Eternity (1951) is based on those experiences. When Jones started to write the second book in the series, he faced the problem that he had killed off a central character in the first book. He solved the problem by keeping the characters but changing the names. The second book in the series, The Thin Red Line (1962), is based on his experiences on Guadalcanal. Jones was wounded in the fighting and shipped back to the United States to recover. He intended to use those experiences in Whistle. Jones also collaborated with Art Weithas on WWII (1975), a pictorial history of the war.
Other American novels set in the Pacific theater include Thomas Heggen’s Mister Roberts (1946), Herman Wouk’s The Caine Mutiny: A Novel of World War II (1951), and James A. Michener’s Tales of the South Pacific (1947). The title character of Mister Roberts is the executive officer on a navy cargo ship. The story is mostly of his battles with the ship’s tyrannical captain. The Caine Mutiny refers to a fictional mutiny on a U.S. Navy destroyer, the U.S.S. Caine. The executive officer relieves the captain on the grounds of mental illness and has to face a Navy court-martial. In Tales of the South Pacific, American men and women experience culture shock and face their racism when they met the people of Polynesia. These three books have in common the fact that the conflict between the Americans and the Japanese is only in the background. The primary conflicts are between American naval officers (Mister Roberts and The Caine Mutiny) or...
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The Literature of Other Countries (Identities & Issues in Literature)
Evelyn Waugh served as a British army officer during the war and wrote a trilogy based on his experiences. Those novels are Men at Arms: A Novel (1952), Officers and Gentlemen (1954), and Unconditional Surrender (1961, also published as The End of the Battle, 1961).
Russian writers Yury Bondarev and Emmanuil Kazakevich served in the Soviet army during the war. Bondarev wrote two short novels set during the war, Batal’ony prosiat ognia (battalions ask for fire, 1957) and Posledniye zalpy (1959; The Last Shots, 1959). Kazakevich wrote Zvezda (1947; Star, 1950) and Dvoe v stepi (two men in the steppe, 1948). Both books were based on his personal experiences.
The Holocaust (Identities & Issues in Literature)
In accordance with a racist ideology, the Nazis systematically murdered approximately six million Jews and approximately four million members of other groups (Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, the disabled and the mentally retarded, criminals, religious objectors) they thought undesirable. The Nazis worked their victims to death in labor camps, starved them to death in ghettoes, and murdered them directly in death camps.
The Nazis’ most famous victim was Anne Frank. Her Het Achterhuis: Dagboekbrieven 12 Juni 1942-Augustus 1944 (1947; Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, 1952) describes how her family hid in Amsterdam for two years before being discovered and sent to concentration camps, where only Anne’s father, Otto, survived. Elie Wiesel, born in Romania and a Holocaust survivor, achieved eminence as a writer about the Holocaust and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986. La Nuit (1958; Night, 1960) is his autobiographical account of his experience in the concentration camps. Most of his fiction also deals with the Holocaust in one way or another.
Three notable American authors who have written about the Holocaust are Leon Uris and Wouk, both Jewish Americans, and William Styron. Uris wrote Mila 18 (1961), about the uprising in Warsaw’s Jewish ghetto in 1943. In QB VII (1970), Uris tells the stories of a Polish doctor who collaborated with the Nazis and a Jewish American writer who...
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Bibliography (Identities & Issues in Literature)
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1951, 1975. Thorough analysis of Anti-Semitism, imperialism, and the development of the totalitarian state.
Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993. Illustrated history of the Holocaust.
Brinkley, David. Washington Goes to War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988. Story of how Washington, D. C. transformed itself from something of a provincial capital to the political center of the Western world.
Crane, Aimée, ed. Art in the Armed Forces. New York: The Hyperion Press, 1944. Reproductions of paintings, drawings, and sketches of artists serving in the U.S. armed forces.
Giles, James. James Jones. Boston: Twayne, 1981. Critical study of Jones’s writings, with one chapter devoted to each novel.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World II. New York: Random House, 1995. Short survey of the histories, biographies, and personal accounts of World War II.
Leggett, John. Ross and Tom. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974. The second half is a biography of Thomas Heggen, who served in the U.S. Navy during the war and drowned when he was thirty. The author argues that Heggen’s death was a suicide.
Marwick, Arthur. “The Origins of the Second World War” in The Nature of History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971. Discussion of the leading theories of the causes of the war.
Shnayerson, Michael. Irwin Shaw. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1989. The first part of chapter 10 of this biography is devoted to The Young Lions and to what portions are based on Shaw’s personal experiences.
Williams, Oscar, ed. The War Poets. New York: John Day, 1945. An anthology of war poetry of the twentieth century, emphasizing the works of poets with firsthand experience.