The Winter's Tale (Vol. 81)
The Winter's Tale
For further information regarding the critical and stage history of The Winter's Tale, see SC, Volumes 7, 15, 36, 45, 57, and 68.
Although The Winter's Tale (ca. 1609) is generally classified as a romance, many critics view the play as a tragicomedy because of its two-part structure. The first part of the play, featuring the onset of Leontes's jealousy over his wife's relationship with his friend Polixenes, her subsequent public trial and humiliation, and the death of their son, includes elements common in Shakespearean tragedy. The second part of the work, however, with its pastoral setting and eventual happy ending, includes elements of comedy. The main source for The Winter's Tale is Robert Greene's novel Pandosto (1588), a tale of the destructive jealousy of the King of Bohemia ending in the deaths of his wife and infant son. Although he followed some of the details of his source very closely, Shakespeare drastically changed the ending of his version, eventually uniting Leontes with his wife and banished daughter. Although some critics have dismissed The Winter's Tale as a dramatic failure, criticizing the play for it's thematic improbabilities and uneven structure, most modern scholars view the play as one of Shakespeare's most profoundly human dramas, as well as an example of Shakespeare's continuing development as an experimental dramatist. Scholars continue to analyze the play's dramatic structure, genre, and the enigmatic character of Leontes, attempting in a variety of ways to account for his seemingly irrational jealousy.
Character-based study of The Winter's Tale has primarily focused on Leontes. The King initiates the action in the play by his seemingly sudden outburst of jealousy, and this change in character has prompted much critical debate about the plausibility of the play's action. While many critics in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries regarded Leontes's behavior as unrealistic and unexplainable, modern critics have attempted to find clues to Leontes's state of mind prior to his outburst in the beginning of the play. Roger J. Trienens (1953) contends that the character is beset with feelings of distrust from the very beginning of the play, and that his invitation to Polixenes to extend his visit is merely “the device of jealousy seeking proof.” Richard H. Abrams (1986) also examines the source of Leontes's jealousy. Abrams notes that “[u]nder the spell of jealousy, Leontes is changed. His good angel, reason, abandons him, and the tempter, imagination, does his thinking for him.” Leontes's characterization is often contrasted with that of his wife Hermione, who according to Wilbur Sanders (1987), rescues the play from a descent into utter failure. Sanders is appreciative of Hermione's serenity and calm in the face of terrifying accusations, noting that it is her presence that lends grace to the play despite Shakespeare's dramatic lapses.
Although popular in Shakespeare's day, The Winter's Tale has been less well-received in modern times. The play's structural irregularities has made The Winter's Tale a challenge for producers, directors, and actors alike. Many reviewers have noted that while the work is full of powerful characters and emotions, its two-part structure, which changes from tragedy to comedy, makes it difficult for actors to portray their characters in a believable manner. Michael Feingold, (see Further Reading) reviewing Brian Kulick's 2000 production of The Winter's Tale at the Delacorte Theatre in New York City, contends that although Kulick did an admirable job of creating a somber stage, his actors were unable to tap into the “inner life” of their characters, thus taking much of the passion out of a play that depends on the power of human emotion to overcome its dramatic challenges. Reviewing Barry Edelstein's 2002 Classic Stage Company production, Charles Isherwood (2003) acknowledges the difficulty faced by Edelstein in directing a modern-day production of this play, but notes that the performance suffered not from the efforts to reconcile the two worlds, but from the lackluster acting of the cast. In a complementary assessment of the same production, Charles McNulty (2003) claims that while Edelstein's modernistic staging of the play was elegant and unhurried, the acting failed to display authentic emotion, leaving the audience unable to connect to the far-fetched story. In contrast, Nina daVinci Nichols (see Further Reading) praises Edelstein's production, particularly John Strathairn's powerful and subdued rendering of Leontes's character. The fantastic elements of The Winter's Tale allow for innovative interpretation, such as Mathew Warchus's 2002 Royal Shakespeare Company production, which took place in a modern American setting. Reviewer Kenneth Tucker (see Further Reading) praises Warchus's imaginative use of twentieth-century parallelisms in the production, noting that despite occasional lapses, the production commanded the audience's attention.
Late-twentieth-century criticism of The Winter's Tale has focused heavily on its dramaturgy and structure. Critics such as Peter G. Platt (1997) regard the contrasting action of the play as a symbolic device used by Shakespeare to convey the oppositional nature of rationality and wonder. Platt contends that the first part of the play, with its focus on logic and facts, reveals the ultimate absurdity of speech and meaning when interpreted using only rationality and logic. Platt examines Leontes's misguided attempts at reason and rationality, which lead him to make misguided decisions. The second part of the play, focusing on the more romantic elements of the story, including a reconciliation based on grace and forgiveness, highlights the power of wonder and emotion. Other critics, such as Martine Van Elk (2000), have studied The Winter's Tale as an example of a play that clearly reflects the social and cultural concerns of contemporary Jacobean society, especially in regard to class and gender. Elk contends that the language of the play is a key indicator of how Jacobeans viewed issues of social mobility and identity, and proposes that the play “explores the contradictory constructions of class and gender that emerged from the Stuart court and the courtesy literature of its day.” In his critique of The Winter's Tale, Jerry H. Bryant (1963) places the play within the English pastoral tradition, and examines Shakespeare's transformation of the stereotypical elements of the pastoral style to create a tale that is “an involved and subtle commentary on appearance and reality.” In contrast, Joan Hartwig (1970) places The Winter's Tale in the realm of tragicomedy, arguing that the play ultimately demonstrates the benevolence of the power that controls the universe. Despite Leontes's seemingly unpardonable behavior, Hartwig maintains that his ultimate repentance and reunion with Hermione is characteristic of Shakespeare's tragicomic perspective, forcing the audience and readers to suspend rational judgment in favor of appreciating the wonder of humanity.
Criticism: Overviews And General Studies
SOURCE: Bryant, Jerry H. “The Winter's Tale and the Pastoral Tradition.” Shakespeare Quarterly 14, no. 4 (autumn 1963): 387-98.
[In the following essay, Bryant places The Winter's Tale within the English pastoral tradition, and examines Shakespeare's transformation of the stereotypical elements of the pastoral style to create a tale that is “an involved and subtle commentary on appearance and reality.”]
It is curious that no appraiser or appreciator seems to have puzzled over the kinship of The Winter's Tale with the pastoral tradition. Most commentators tacitly assume the connection, then abandon it to court other features. Some explain the drama as tragicomedy, some as one of the “last plays”. Others see it against the background of Elizabethan thought. Still others, lately, have examined the grammar, the vocabulary, and the reverberations of the imagery. All these approaches are good, cogent, helpful; but the pastoral element has gone begging for an analyst. For that matter, Sir Walter Greg once went so far as to say that “it is characteristic of the shepherd scenes in that play, written in the full maturity of Shakespeare's genius, that, in spite of their origins in Greene's romance of Pandosto, they owe nothing of their treatment to pastoral tradition, nothing to convention, nothing to aught save life. …”1 This persistent neglect of an...
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SOURCE: Hartwig, Joan. “The Tragicomic Perspective of The Winter's Tale.” ELH 37, no. 1 (March 1970): 12-36.
[In the following essay, Hartwig proposes that in The Winter's Tale Shakespeare used a miraculous resolution to create a sense of dislocation and wonder in his audience, using Leontes's penitence and eventual recovery of Hermione as a way to stress the benevolence of the power that controls universe.]
In The Winter's Tale, Leontes, confronted with the breathing statue which is Hermione, pleads to keep this moment which is penultimate to actual discovery. Paulina, aware of the intensity with which Leontes has responded to the apparent statue of Hermione, offers to draw the curtain.
I'll draw the curtain:
My lord's almost so far transported that
He'll think anon it lives.
O sweet Paulina,
Make me to think so twenty years together!
No settled senses of the world can match
The pleasure of that madness. Let 't alone.
Joy occurs before the factual affirmation that the world of hope and dreams coincides with the world of real experience: it occurs when...
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Criticism: Character Studies
SOURCE: Trienens, Roger J. “The Inception of Leontes' Jealousy in The Winter's Tale.” Shakespeare Quarterly 4, no. 3 (July 1953): 321-26.
[In the following essay, Trienens focuses on the inception of Leontes's jealousy and contends that the character is beset with feelings of distrust from the very beginning of the play.]
Much of the criticism of The Winter's Tale hinges upon the characterization of Leontes and upon his startling outburst of jealousy in Act I, scene ii. Most critics have assumed that Leontes is in a normal state of mind when this scene begins but that he suddenly becomes jealous when Hermione persuades Polixenes, the visiting king, to remain longer in Sicily. Yet this has seemed a very inadequate cause for suspicion, because Hermione, however graciously, merely obeys her husband's command. Therefore these critics have generally tried to account for his sudden jealousy in one of two ways. Either they have explained it as manifesting a weakness inherent in Leontes' nature, a weakness which makes him respond to a most trifling cause for suspicion, or else they have simply called it an improbability and hence a flaw in the dramatic construction.1
Each of these views has certain drawbacks which I should like to point out before citing what I consider to be a true interpretation. Harold C. Goddard, in The Meaning of Shakespeare, illustrates...
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SOURCE: Abrams, Richard H. “Leontes's Enemy: Madness in The Winter's Tale.” In Aspects of Fantasy: Selected Essays from the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and Film, edited by William Coyle, pp. 155-62. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986.
[In the following essay, Abrams examines the source of Leontes's jealousy, noting that “[u]nder the spell of jealousy, Leontes is changed. His good angel, reason, abandons him, and the tempter, imagination, does his thinking for him.”]
Just before their duel, Hamlet apologizes to Laertes for his wild behavior at Ophelia's grave by placing the blame on an “enemy” that took over when Hamlet “from himself [was] ta'en away”(V.ii.234).1 This “enemy” in Hamlet's expansion of the figure becomes virtually a possessing demon, like the “unclean spirits” (cacodaemones) said to afflict the mentally ill in a tradition holding from Biblical times to the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, this view of mental illness was in retreat as evidenced by Shakespeare's broadly satiric portrait of the quack exorcist in Comedy of Errors, and we need not suppose that Hamlet seriously tries to escape responsibility for his actions by disowning the thing of darkness in himself. For though he speaks of reason and its adversary, madness, vying for control of his being, the very facetiousness with which he pursues...
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SOURCE: Sanders, Wilbur. “The Good Queen (Acts 2 and 3).” In Harvester New Critical Introductions to Shakespeare: The Winter's Tale, pp. 31-50. Sussex, England: Harvester Press, 1987.
[In the following essay, Sanders contends that Hermione rescues The Winter's Tale from a descent into utter failure, noting that it is her presence that lends grace to the play despite Shakespeare's dramatic lapses.]
There is a long-running critical dispute concerning the first half of The Winter's Tale, in which, before I'm through, I shall probably become disgruntledly embroiled: is it ‘tragic’? or is it not? At the moment, though, I'd prefer to stave it off with a provisional remark or two. Such as: whatever tragic potential the action contains, the Leontes we have been watching is hardly the stuff tragic heroes are made of. Neither is Polixenes. If there's any tragedy about, it would seem to attach to Hermione—beset as she is by touchy, vacillating, insufficient or wrong-headed men. Even the trusty Camillo, who
would not be a stander-by to hear My sovereign mistress clouded so, without My present vengeance taken,
—even Camillo, when the opportunity presents itself, offers no ‘vengeance’ and fails even to ‘stand by’. For all his solicitude, he leaves his sovereign mistress to her fate. The only man amongst them all,...
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Criticism: Production Reviews
SOURCE: Isherwood, Charles. “Off Broadway, The Winter's Tale.” Variety 389, no. 11 (3 February-9 February 2003): 43.
[In the following review, Isherwood acknowledges the difficulty faced by Barry Edelstein in directing a modern-day production of The Winter's Tale, but notes that the performance suffered not from the efforts to reconcile the two worlds, but from the lackluster acting of the cast.]
With their preposterous, often gruesome plots and occasional dabblings in the supernatural, Shakespeare's late romances do not take easily to modern-dress productions. In Barry Edelstein's sober but sapless production of The Winter's Tale at the Classic Stage Co., for example, the oracle of Delphi makes its pronouncement via a reel-to-reel tape recorder wheeled onstage—a deflatingly mundane image, even if the voice, amusingly, is that of the aptly august Walter Cronkite.
The kind of topsy-turvy worlds these plays evoke is not easy to reconcile with business suits and modern technology, although Edelstein's production finds reasonably intelligent ways to draw parallels between Shakespeare's ancient Sicilia and Bohemia and contemporary America. The kings of those countries, Leontes (David Strathairn) and Polixenes (Michael Gill), appear here like CEOs of allied business concerns. (Recent developments in the business world would suggest highflying CEOs may well be...
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SOURCE: McNulty, Charles. “Assassins and Romance.” The Village Voice 48, no. 6 (5 February-11 February 2003): 57.
[In the following excerpted review, McNulty reviews the Classic Stage Company's 2003 production of The Winter's Tale, claiming that while Barry Edelstein's modernistic staging of the play was elegant and unhurried, the acting failed to display authentic emotion, leaving the audience unable to connect to the far-fetched story.]
Shakespeare may be remembered for his great lines, but it's the characters that make us want to revisit his plays. If the matter were simply quotations, a Bartlett's would satisfy in place of an evening out. Maybe this is why Harold Bloom's Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human, and not Frank Kermode's Shakespeare's Language, has become the most widely cited Bard reference among active theater critics. Bloom, for all his dogmatic asides and crankiness, certainly clarified the “peculiar gift of inwardness” bestowed on Shakespeare's protagonists. What draws us—and by extension actors—to the plays is the chance to encounter consciousness in dawning recognition of itself, grasping for answers where only questions reside, and testing the capacity to rethink what has previously been held as certainty.
Shakespeare in performance lives or dies by the quality of its acting. If two recent modern-dress productions—Theatre for...
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SOURCE: Viswanathan, S. “Theatricality and Mimesis in The Winter's Tale: The Instance of ‘Taking One by the Hand.’” In Shakespeare in India, edited by S. Nagarajan and S. Viswanathan, pp. 42-52. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1987.
[In the following essay, Viswanathan theorizes that in his later plays, particularly The Winter's Tale, Shakespeare was extremely experimental with his theatrical techniques, mixing “self-conscious theatricality” with “convincing verisimilitude.”]
A significant feature of the dramaturgy of the later Shakespeare which has come in for a good deal of fruitful attention in recent years is the quality of deliberate dramatic self-consciousness or ‘self-conscious theatricality’ that marks the late tragedies and the last plays, if not some of the problem comedies also. It may be described as a new flowering and pronounced manifestation of, and a further refinement on, the quality of ‘multi-consciousness’ inherent in the English dramatic tradition and this is in ample evidence in the earlier Shakespeare; this trend perhaps first arose in the boy companies at the turn of the century and came to be adopted in the public playhouses also, sooner or later. This quality of dramatic self-consciousness may be regarded as the basis for certain other characteristics which seem distinctive of the Jacobean dramatic mode. These characteristics may be...
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SOURCE: Platt, Peter G. “Reason Diminished: Wonder in The Winter's Tale.” In Reason Diminished: Shakespeare and the Marvelous, pp. 153-68. Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
[In the following essay, Platt examines the philosophical opposition of rationality and wonder in The Winter's Tale. ]
The Winter's Tale provides us with the purest example of a Shakespearean “dramatics” of wonder, for in it Shakespeare confronts the potential epistemological tyranny of the rational and posits the marvelous as a means of overcoming this powerful force. At the same time that he examines these philosophical issues through his dramatic art, Shakespeare raises aesthetic questions by unmasking this art as the play unfolds. Thus, while Howard Felperin is certainly correct to point out that nowhere else in Shakespeare is the power of art—which is closely linked to wonder in this play—“seen as wholly positive,”1 Shakespeare also interrogates the role that this power plays in challenging epistemological certainty and dramatic expectation.
Structurally, the play breaks down neatly into two sections, the first more epistemological, the second more aesthetic and theatrical, in focus. Leontes' rage for knowledge, which leads him deep into the heart of a hermeneutical abyss, is the dominant concern of the first three acts; this section we could call...
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SOURCE: Van Elk, Martine. “‘Our praises are our wages’: Courtly Exchange, Social Mobility, and Female Speech in The Winter's Tale.” Philological Quarterly 79, no. 4 (fall 2000): 429-57.
[In the following essay, Van Elk views The Winter's Tale as an example of the “complicated, reciprocal relationship between gender and class” in the Jacobean period.]
What happens when a woman speaks at court? Early modern representations of female courtly speech are notoriously fraught with contradiction. In Stefano Guazzo's The Civile Conversation, for instance, the perfect courtier Anniball Magnocavalli describes the speech of the exemplary court lady as follows: “her talke and discourses are so delightfull, that you wyll only then beginne to bee sory, when shee endeth to speake: and wishe that shee woulde bee no more weary to speake, then you are to heare. Yea, shee frameth her jestures so discretely, that in speakyng, shee seemeth to holde her peace, and in holding her peace, to speake.”1 While the words of the lady arouse the courtier's desire for more, her body and its gestures help to give the impression of chaste silence. The chiasmus in Anniball's description is a perfect illustration of the double injunction, to speak and remain silent at the same time, placed on the female voice in early modern representations of the Renaissance court.
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SOURCE: Joughin, John J. “Shakespeare, Modernity, and the Aesthetic: Art, Truth, and Judgement in The Winter's Tale.” In Shakespeare and Modernity: Early Modern to Millennium, edited by Hugh Grady, pp. 61-84. London: Routledge, 2000.
[In the following essay, Joughin argues that a finer understanding of the role of aesthetics in Shakespeare's plays will serve to increase our understanding of his work in general, and The Winter's Tale in particular.]
Any discussion of the literary or artistic merit of Shakespeare's plays is almost bound to arouse suspicion. For most radical critics, aesthetics still tends to be discarded as part of the ‘problem’ rather than part of the ‘solution’, all too reminiscent of a brand of outdated idealism which privileged notions of refined sensibility and the immutability of ‘literary value’. As a consequence, contemporary political and historicist criticism has tended to regard a ‘commitment to the literary’ as ‘one of the major limitations’ of traditionalist approaches to the playwright's work (Hawkes 1996b: 11). Yet more recently, the emergence in a British context of a critical formation, sometimes pejoratively labelled ‘new aestheticist’ in its orientation, has foregrounded the need to give some further consideration to the transformative potential of the aesthetic.
In the course of resituating some of the...
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Barkan, Leonard. “‘Living Sculptures’: Ovid, Michelangelo, and The Winter's Tale.” ELH 48, no. 4 (winter 1981): 639-67.
Explores the motif of the statue in The Winter's Tale, noting that the idea of a statue coming to life was a popular one in Shakespeare's time.
Biggins, Dennis. “‘Exit Pursued by a Beare’: A Problem in The Winter's Tale.” Shakespeare Quarterly 13, no. 1 (winter 1962): 3-13.
A close analysis of the bear scene in The Winter's Tale, finding it a technique Shakespeare used to wrap up several thematic elements in the play in order to make room for new developments.
Cooley, Ronald W. “Speech Versus Spectacle: Autolycus, Class and Containment in The Winter's Tale.” Renaissance and Reformation 21, no. 3 (summer 1997): 15-23.
Analyzes Autolycus as a character who represents a host of Jacobean concerns regarding social instability.
Dean, John. “The Persistence of Sick Affection: The Winter's Tale.” In Restless Wanderers: Shakespeare and the Pattern of Romance, edited by James Hogg, pp. 286-94. Salzburg, Austria: Institut Für Anglistik und Amerikanistic Universität Salzburg, 1979.
Examines the theme of love and affection in The Winter's Tale.
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