William Wycherley 1640?-1716
English dramatist, poet, and aphorist.
The following entry presents criticism of Wycherley's career published between 1993 and the present. For earlier appraisals on Wycherley, see LC vols. 8 and 21.
Recognized as one of the most influential dramatists of the Restoration, William Wycherley is renowned for his brazen satire and witty dialogue. His social commentary, particularly condemning hypocrisy, pretense, and avarice, has created much critical attention and controversy, especially with regard to his frank treatment of moral and sexual attitudes.
Wycherley was born at Clive Hall, Shropshire. Tutored by his Royalist father until the age of fifteen, he was then sent to continue his education in Angoulême, France, where he could escape the strict Puritan educational system under Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate. There Wycherley studied under the Marquisse de Montausier and her circle of intellectuals and, like many who followed the Stuarts to France, converted to Roman Catholicism. Upon his return to England in 1660, however, he reverted to Protestantism. Arriving just before the inception of the Restoration, Wycherley briefly studied law before enrolling in Queen's College, Oxford, where he studied philosophy but left before completing his degree. He then entered the Inner Temple, one of the Inns of Court of which his father was a member, intending to revive his pursuit of legal studies. However, he soon realized his greater passion for literature and left. Scholars are unsure of Wycherley's activities over the following few years but speculate that he was involved with the military and that he probably participated as a naval officer in the Dutch War. It has also been suggested that Wycherley took part in a diplomatic mission to Spain with Sir Richard Fanshawe.
His first work, the poem Hero and Leander was published anonymously in 1669. His distinction as a dramatist began, however, when his first play, Love in a Wood; or St. James's Park made its appearance on the stage in 1671 at the Theatre Royal in London, attracting the attention of Charles II's mistress, Barbara Villiers Palmer, the Duchess of Cleveland. Soon becoming Wycherley's own mistress, she introduced him to court circles in which he became an immediate sensation. Though his second play, The Gentleman Dancing-Master, was not well received upon its performance at Covent Garden in 1672, his popularity did not diminish; The Country-Wife and The Plain-Dealer, first performed in 1675 and 1676 respectively, were great successes.
Wycherley fell ill in 1678 and Charles II subsequently sent him to Montpellier, France, to recuperate. Upon his return, he was appointed tutor of Charles's illegitimate son, the Duke of Richmond. Before he took on his post, Wycherley fell in love with and secretly married Lady Laetitia-Isabella, Countess of Drogheda. Neglecting his duties at court, he quickly fell out of favor with the king, who revoked his position. Soon thereafter in 1681, the Countess died, leaving Wycherley responsible for the dispersion of her large estate and beleaguered with expensive litigation. He fell increasingly deeper into debt, resulting in his ultimate destitution and incarceration in debtors' prison. Upon hearing of his plight in 1686, however, King James II reconciled Wycherley's debts and secured him a pension, which remained in place until the king abdicated the throne two years later. In 1704, Wycherley published his first edition of Miscellany Poems, which caught the interest of English poet Alexander Pope. With Pope's assistance, Wycherley revised his verse and in 1728-29 a significantly improved collection of his poems, along with aphorisms and correspondence, was published. A mere eleven days before his death, Wycherley married Elizabeth Jackson. Speculations on his motives have included preventing his nephew from inheriting his estate, the payment of outstanding debts with Jackson's wealth to be reimbursed with an inheritance, and outright confusion or entrapment, for Wycherley's memory appeared to have been failing at that point. Wycherley died January 1, 1716 as a Roman Catholic, having converted again, and was buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, London.
Though Wycherley dabbled in poetry, anonymously publishing the mock-heroic burlesque Hero and Leander and his later Miscellany Poems, he is best known for his canon of drama. His four plays conform to many Restoration conventions, particularly in the use of sexual intrigue and mistaken identity. Unsympathetic to hypocrisy, materialism, and pretense, he remorselessly directs his wit at their greatest offenders in his works. His first drama, Love in a Wood; or St. James's Park, is a satiric ridicule of pastoral romance and its idealization of humanity. Overtly mocking the popular tale The Faithful Shepherdess by John Fletcher, Wycherley puns the contradiction inherent in the storyline even in his title; the word wood signifies not only a forest, but the Restoration definition of madness or confusion. His subsequent work, The Gentleman Dancing-Master, was published just a few months later but lacked the ingenuity of his first drama. Following the contemporary traditional comedic formula, Wycherley creates a very simple plot based on Spanish dramatist's Calderon's El Maestro del Danzar. Flat characters and uninspired dialogue compose a narrative in which love ultimately rectifies all transgressions. Wycherley's brilliant technique reappeared in his third drama several years later in 1675. The Country-Wife has been dubbed the classic “Restoration Comedy,” for while it is not overtly humorous, it is replete with wit. Using Juvenal's Satire Six as inspiration, Wycherley employs an assortment of characters to express his warnings against lust and sexual exploitation. His final drama, The Plain-Dealer is his most classic satire and yet, in its brutal honesty, also the darkest. For its dourness, critics have found it difficult to categorize as a Restoration comedy and note instead its similarities to Le misanthrope by French dramatist Molière. In creating a satiric commentary on satire itself, Wycherley makes poignant observations about hypocrisy and meaninglessness as he criticizes conventional ideals of the era.
Wycherley's first two major works, Love in a Wood and The Gentleman Dancing-Master, have elicited limited commentary since their publication. Love in a Wood was an early success with contemporaneous audiences, who praised its complex and dynamic plots and subplots. Little has changed in its criticism through the centuries, and it is still regarded as representative of Wycherley's promise as a great dramatist. The Gentleman Dancing-Master initially disappointed expectant spectators with a somewhat tedious plot, and has faded into relative obscurity over time. The Country-Wife, however, was an extremely popular play in the seventeenth century, deemed a hilarious comedy for its jeers at adulterers who claim virtue. The work was nevertheless censored in the eighteenth century. During this time of changing values and social norms, it was judged offensive and dissolute. In 1766 David Garrick's subdued adaptation, The Country Girl, replaced the original onstage and remained there through the end of the nineteenth century. Changing views on how drama affects audiences changed the reception of Wycherley's plays. A play that in the eighteenth century exposed audiences to instances of immoral behavior, offering such behavior up to denounce it, was seen in the nineteenth century as providing audiences immoral behavior to emulate. Today critics remain distressed with the morality of the play, but with different rationale. With central characters that seem to exemplify the vices of lust and hypocrisy, the reader questions exactly what values Wycherley was condoning at the time of publication and against what the satire is actually directed. However, other critics maintain that the work was not meant to be read into too deeply and should be interpreted simply as an amusing farce. The Plain-Dealer is particularly distinguished for its extreme pessimism and bitterness, unmatched in classic satire. Of all his works, Wycherley was particularly extolled for this drama by seventeenth-century critics, commended by his contemporaries for appropriately chastising society for its transgressions of hypocrisy and pretense. Modern critics, conspicuously less enthusiastic about this play, have remarked on its contradiction, asserting that in his righteousness, Manly damns all others, perhaps descending to their level of sin and inhumanity. While most modern scholars feel that The Plain-Dealer is overall more cynical than requisite for its intention, Wycherley became known among his contemporaries as the “Plain Dealer” himself, not only for occupying the role of exemplary moral satirist, but perhaps as well for sharing much of the same perspective as his title character, Manly.
Hero and Leander in Burlesque (poem) 1669
Love in a Wood; or, St. James's Park (drama) 1671
The Gentleman Dancing-Master (drama) 1672
The Country-Wife (drama) 1675
The Plain-Dealer (drama) 1676
Miscellany Poems (poetry) 1704
The Posthumous Works of William Wycherley, Esq., in Prose and Verse (poetry and aphorisms) 1728
*The Posthumous Works of William Wycherley, Esq., in Prose and Verse, Vol. II (poetry, aphorisms, and letters) 1729
The Complete Works of William Wycherley. 4 vols. (dramas, poetry, aphorisms, and letters) 1924
*This work contains revisions of some poems included in the earlier Posthumous Works of William Wycherley, Esq., in Prose and Verse which were undertaken by the editor.
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SOURCE: Marshall, W. Gerald. Introduction to A Great Stage of Fools: Theatricality and Madness in the Plays of William Wycherley, pp. 1-18. New York: AMS Press, 1993.
[In the following essay, Marshall defines the historical context of theatricality and madness in Wycherley's plays.]
With few exceptions, commentaries on the four plays of William Wycherley are superficial in nature and do not offer a unified vision for the dramatic canon produced by the greatest of the Restoration comic playwrights. Traditionally, the plays have been defined as comedies of manners or of wit, with either approach vastly limiting our understanding of the plays' depth and complexity.1 Even very recent studies have tended to be narrow and stereotypical, discussing only the sexual aspects of Wycherley's drama. For instance, Robert F. Bode suggests that the central theme of The Plain Dealer is ambiguity in sexual relations, while Richard Braverman argues that Wycherley's plays simply discuss the inherent selfishness involved in the rakish sexual practices of most characters.2 In fact, only a few scholars actually go beyond the rather archaic approach to the plays which treats them as comedy of manners or mere sex comedy. Norman Holland examines the plays' concerns with social pretense and appearances versus nature. In his Language in Wycherley's Plays, James Thompson explores ways in which...
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SOURCE: Cohen, Derek. “The Country Wife and Social Danger.” Restoration and 18th Century Theatre Research 10, no. 1 (summer 1995): 1-14.
[In the essay below, Cohen examines the tension and energy inherent in the social situation presented in the play The Country Wife.]
The Country Wife is a play which is carried by the energy of constant present danger. The threat of social collapse, which a single simple exposure implies, is omnipresent. What if, we are constantly thinking, the ruse is exposed as a ruse? What consequences would ensue from such exposure? Like many another farce, the results of exposure would produce tragedy in one or many forms. Those characters who have carefully and, in one or two cases, almost deliberately, insulated themselves from the knowledge of the truth surrounding Horner and their wives, would be compelled by the full force of public humiliation to depths and degrees of self knowledge heretofore avoided. Self-knowledge would, in the more egregious cases of Pinchwife and Sir Jasper, produce a choice based on nothing so much as that fragile structure of male ethics which have determined the direction and the values of the social organism. These men, if forced to face the fact that they have been cuckolded and gulled by another man would have to choose, quite simply, between behaving like brave men or cowardly men. No other option exists. Brave men would, by...
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SOURCE: Velissariou, Aspasia. “Patriarchal Tactics of Control and Female Desire in Wycherley's The Gentleman Dancing-Master and The Country Wife.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 37, no. 2 (summer 1995): 115-26.
[In the following essay, Velissariou discusses examples of sexual control in Wycherley's plays.]
Sexuality in Wycherley's dramas has long received much critical notice. Gender, desire, and the characters' positions in the face of it, especially in The Country Wife, have become the central preoccupations of recent criticism while attention has also been drawn to sexual relationships as a terrain for the exercise of power.1 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, in her perceptive reading of the play, sees in it the deployment of a symbolic system of exchange between men with women as its object. Heterosexual relationships are significant, not in themselves, but only to the extent that they serve a male strategy of acquiring bonds with and control over other men.2 Sedgwick offers an important perspective on the dialectics of power and gender in Wycherley, demonstrating women's passive, but nonetheless instrumental position in the construction and reproduction of male bonds of allegiance and power.
However, it is also worth emphasizing the historical interdependence between the forging of male relationships through the exchange of women and...
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SOURCE: Burke, Helen. “Law-suits, Love-suits, and the Family Property in Wycherley's The Plain Dealer.” In Cultural Readings of Restoration and Eighteenth-Century English Theater, edited by J. Douglas Canfield and Deborah C. Payne, pp. 89-113. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.
[In the following essay, Burke examines the internal and external contexts of The Plain Dealer that determine the structure of its plot and subplot. Burke argues that the play's full subversiveness is noticeable only when its cultural context is recognized.]
The realm of the proper … the general cultural heterosexual establishment in which a man's reign is held to be proper.
What is emphasized or downplayed in the history of commentary on a literary text, or what is perceived to be a “problem” or a “failure” in a text, is often as much an effect of the critical tradition in which this text has been received as it is an effect of the literary work itself. At least this is so, I suggest, in the case of William Wycherley's The Plain Dealer (1676). Two marked tendencies in the tradition of commentary on this play—the tendency to treat the text almost exclusively in terms of character analysis and the habit of overlooking one of the play's two plots—grow out of the humanist tradition of critical...
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SOURCE: Hawkins, Barrie. “The Country Wife: Metaphor Manifest.” Restoration and 18th Century Theatre Research 11, no. 1 (summer 1996): 40-63.
[In the essay below, Hawkins discusses Wycherley's use of language and imagery in The Country Wife.]
L. C. Knights has famously charged that metaphoric density is precisely what Restoration Comedy lacks. Its language, he claims, is impoverished, its “idiomatic vigour and evocative power” is lost, and the plays are not so much immoral as “trivial, gross and dull.”1 James Thompson's book-length analysis of Wycherley's “densely packed imagery”2 has answered this Olympian judgement and P. F. Vernon claims that The Country Wife is “more metaphoric than any other comedy in English.”3 Others have claimed that Restoration Comedy is uniformly refined, restrained and static. David Vieth suggests:
the Elizabethan and Jacobean idea of a play as essentially a series of dynamic, developing actions would be misleading if applied to The Country Wife. Most Restoration plays are comparatively static … the plot is primarily an illusion of movement designed to bring issues and characters into friction.
But this emphasises only the moral-frictional pattern, and The Country Wife is not a parade of...
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SOURCE: Hynes, Peter. “Against Theory? Knowledge and Action in Wycherley's Plays.” Modern Philology 94, no. 2 (November 1996): 163-89.
[In the following essay, Hynes describes how Wycherley's protagonists use knowledge to gain the upper hand.]
The foundation of comedy, wrote Richard Steele, lies in “happiness and success.”1 Not so much a provocation to laughter as a conventional plot structure, comic drama is a form in which protagonists make their way from exile to integration, both adapting to and mastering the social world. Validation is its stock in trade; hence Steele's attention to “success.” Given this emphasis on acceptance and inclusion, comedy might well be expected to thematize the “how-to” of social action, and one of the ways it traditionally does so is by suggesting that effective action springs from knowledge about how society works. The standard premise of the “outwitting” plot is the astuteness of the hero, the heroine, or a tricky accomplice in circumventing the opposition of a series of “blocking” characters—typically, a malign papa—in order to reap rewards both sexual and monetary.2 While Providence or luck may have something to do with the happy ending, these protagonists' success is usually more explicable in worldly terms: heroes are intellectually acute, smart interpreters of the social scene. In other words, comic protagonists may...
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SOURCE: Young, Douglas. “The Play-World of William Wycherley.” In The Feminist Voices in Restoration Comedy, pp. 85-157. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997.
[In the following essay, Young offers brief synopses of Wycherley's plays, a discussion of society in Wycherley's time, and an examination of women's roles in the plays.]
William Wycherley was a contemporary of Sir George Etherege and, like Sir George, was a well-known figure in the real beau monde of the Restoration aristocracy. Recent research has established 28 May 1641, “as the most probable date” of his birth (Cook and Swannell, eds., Introduction xvii). Wycherley died on New Year's Eve 1715, and was buried at St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden, “a stone's throw from the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane” (xxvi), and a “spot of a walk past Will's Coffee House” (Connely 335). Wycherley was born at Clive Hall near Shrewsbury, the eldest child of Daniel Wycherley who managed the estate of the marquis of Winchester. The marquis was a Royalist supporter who was imprisoned by the Puritans during the Commonwealth. Daniel Wycherley acquired large tracts of land and established himself as a prosperous and ruthless gentleman with a passion for litigation (Rogers 19).
When young Wycherley was fifteen, his father sent him to France to avoid a Puritan education and to join the Royalist faction exiled there. William...
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SOURCE: Knapp, Peggy A. “The ‘Plyant Discourse’ of Wycherley's The Country Wife.” Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 40, no. 3 (summer 2000): 451-72.
[In the following essay, Knapp examines the language of The Country Wife for evidence of then current social practices and attitudes. She maintains that this play would have been understood differently by various groups of the time.]
In a spirited defense of the excellences of Restoration culture, John Dryden praises King Charles II for having awakened “the dull and heavy spirits of the English, from their natural reserv'dness; loosen'd them, from their stiff forms of conversation; and made them easy and plyant to each other in discourse. Thus, insensibly, our way of living become more free: and the fire of the English wit, which was before stifled under a constrain'd, melancholy way of breeding, began first to display its force: by mixing the solidity of our Nation, with the air and gayety of our neighbors.”1 The king may indeed have set a tone in court that counteracted recent Puritanical curbs on speech, but it was the Restoration stage that allowed and popularized the art of ingenious conversation and encouraged the habit of “easy and plyant” discourse. Clearly, Dryden links linguistic habits to behaviors and displays his political and cultural commitments to a “way of living” both “more...
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SOURCE: Vance, John A. “‘Plagues and Torments’: The Country Wife.” In William Wycherley and the Comedy of Fear, pp. 81-129. Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press, 2000.
[In the excerpt below, Vance discusses Wycherley's varied portrayals of fear and weakness in The Country Wife. As portrayed by Wycherley, the male's primary fear is the loss of sexual potency, while the female's is perpetual incarceration.]
Coming fresh from a reading of The Gentleman Dancing-Master, one may detect a seamless transition to The Country Wife. That is, Wycherley takes us from the courtship phase (Hippolita and Gerrard) to the married state (the Fidgets and Pinchwifes) and displays the male's greatest fear (the loss of manhood) made manifest in Pinchwife's experiences and that of the women (perpetual incarceration) both surmounted in Lady Fidget and realized in Margery Pinchwife.1 And then there is the continued attention the playwright's gives to ironic notions of male potency—now resting in the paradox of Horner's decision to move from a state of virility to one of “sterility.” By assuming the pose of an emasculated male—that ultimate state to which other males, himself included, attempt to push their brothers—Horner cleverly attempts to defuse the explosive possibility of being successfully assailed by others.2 Horner's gesture is moreover a...
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Holland, Peter. Introduction to The Plays of William Wycherley, pp. ix-xvi. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Contains a bibliographic essay.
McCarthy, Eugene B. William Wycherley, A Reference Guide. Boston, Mass.: G.K. Hall, 195 p.
Annotated bibliography of criticism of Wycherley's works, from early assessments to twentieth-century evaluations.
Connely, Willard. Brawny Wycherley. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1930, 356 p.
Early biography of Wycherley.
Bacon, Jon Lance. “Wives, Widows and Writings in Restoration Comedy.” Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 31, no. 3 (summer 1991): 427-43.
Examines the “women-as-text” motif as portrayed in Wycherley's The Country Wife and The Plain-Dealer and works by later English dramatists.
Berman, Ronald. “Wycherley's Unheroic Society.” English Literary History 51, no. 3 (fall 1984): 465-78.
Examination of Wycherley's late works.
Ford, Douglas. “The Country Wife: Rake Hero as Artist.” Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660-1700 17, no. 2 (fall 1993): 77-84.
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