William Tecumseh Sherman (Dictionary of World Biography: The 19th Century)
Article abstract: One of the architects of the Union victory in the Civil War and a father of modern warfare, Sherman was also a leader in the nation’s late nineteenth century Indian wars in the West.
Tecumseh Sherman was born February 8, 1820, in Lancaster, Ohio. His father, Charles R. Sherman, was a lawyer and Ohio Supreme Court justice. His mother, Mary Hoyt, was a graduate of an Eastern school for women. They migrated from Connecticut to Ohio in 1811 and produced there a family of eleven children, including later senator and cabinet member, John Sherman. Tecumseh (Cump) was their sixth child.
When Tecumseh was nine years old, his father died suddenly, and his family was broken up. He was taken up the street to live with the family of Thomas Ewing, later United States senator and cabinet member. There he was baptized in the Catholic Church and received the Christian name, William, to go with his Indian one. From then onward, he was William Tecumseh Sherman. Ewing never adopted him, but he always treated him like a son.
Sherman had a happy childhood, enjoying his friends and relatives and often participating in innocent pranks. He received the best education Lancaster had to offer and, at the age of sixteen, Ewing arranged a West Point appointment for him. Sherman endured the military academy boredom and was graduated sixth in his 1840 class.
During these early years,...
(The entire section is 2916 words.)
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William Tecumseh Sherman (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Sherman’s victory at Atlanta gave Abraham Lincoln’s 1864 reelection campaign a boost, and his waging of psychological warfare caused vast property destruction, few casualties, and ultimate Union victory.
After graduation from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1840, William T. Sherman remained in the army until 1853 when he became a banker and experienced a series of failures. He had a successful tenure as Louisiana Military Seminary superintendent but reluctantly left the South when secession came.
In the American Civil War (1861-1865), Sherman found his bearings at Shiloh in 1862 and quickly became one of the Union’s major military leaders. He occupied Atlanta in September, 1864, then embarked on the March to the Sea that left a band of destruction more than fifty miles wide and three hundred miles long on his way to Savannah, which he captured in December. In February, 1865, pursuing a strategy of total war, Sherman’s troops began a four-hundred-mile trek through the Carolinas, destroying much of South Carolina as they went. During the march, Columbia burned, although the fleeing Confederates are believed to have started the fire.
From 1869 to 1883, as commanding general of the U.S. Army, Sherman directed the wars with...
(The entire section is 295 words.)