Bowles, William Lisle
William Lisle Bowles 1762-1850
English poet and critic.
William Lisle Bowles was an English clergyman, poet, and literary critic whose work spanned the transition period between the eighteenth century's age of sensibility and the Romanticism of the nineteenth century. Considered the father of modern poetry by some scholars, Bowles is better known for his influence on Wordsworth and Coleridge than for his own writing. Although his sonnets were considered new and innovative at the time of their publication, they were soon outdated, and Bowles's reputation as a pioneer was quickly eclipsed by the fame of his early admirers.
Born in King's Sutton in 1762, Bowles was the son and grandson of clergymen and the eldest of seven children. From his father, William Thomas Bowles, he inherited a love of nature, while his mother, Bridget Grey Bowles inspired in him a love of music, particularly sacred music. Although the family's means were limited, Bowles's father was determined to provide a good education for his son and sent him to Winchester in 1776 where he remained until 1781. He was a good student and attracted the attention of the headmaster, Dr. Joseph Warton, who had developed a reputation as an educator of young poets. Warton was also a critic who introduced Bowles to the great ancient and modern poets, and encouraged his protégé's delight in the natural world. Attracted by the opportunity of studying with Warton's brother Thomas, Bowles then matriculated to Trinity College, Oxford, where he won a prize for Latin verse. Thomas Warton was a poet and senior fellow at Trinity; his sonnets apparently influenced Bowles to try his own hand at the form some years later. He received his A.B. in 1786, and although his attendance at Oxford was somewhat intermittent during the next few years, he eventually received his A.M. in 1792. He took orders and began searching for an appointment to a suitable parish.
Around the time he was leaving Oxford he fell in love with the niece of Sir Samuel Romilly, but the match proved impossible, apparently because of Bowles's limited financial means. To console himself, he set out on a tour of Scotland, Belgium, the Rhine, and Switzerland, and the picturesque landscapes he observed on his travels provided the inspiration for his first book of sonnets, published after his return to England, in 1789. Bowles fell in love a second time, but his intended—Harriet Wake, the granddaughter of an Archbishop—died before they married. In 1797 Bowles married his former fiancée's sister Magdalen, and they lived together until her death in 1844.
In the early years of his marriage, Bowles encountered some difficulty securing a suitable position as a clergyman. Finally, in 1804, he was given an appointment to Bremhill, a parish he served with great devotion for the next forty years. In addition to his parish duties, he was involved in the affairs of the county and engaged in numerous scholarly pursuits including the study of antiquities and the writing of biography, criticism, and poetry. Because of his various interests he was well known outside the confines of his small country parsonage. He received other clerical appointments, including one as Canon-Residentiary of Salisbury in 1828, an appointment which obliged him to be away from Bremhill for three months of every year. He died in 1850 at the age of 88 and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral.
Bowles's best known work is his first publication, Fourteen Sonnets, Written Chiefly on Picturesque Spots During a Journey (1789), produced during the period of grieving following his broken engagement. Expectations for the book's success were slim; the publisher was convinced he would never recoup the cost of printing the first one hundred copies. However, within six months all the copies had been sold and the printer acknowledged that he could have sold five times that number. The book was revised and reprinted several times and by 1805, it was in its ninth edition. In the sonnets, Bowles seemed to break with the earlier poetic tradition to concentrate on observations of natural beauty and the emotions inspired by those observations—an innovation that excited the young Coleridge and other Romantic figures. His river sonnets, such as “To the River Tweed” and “To the River Itchin,” were especially popular, the latter said to have inspired an imitation by Coleridge.
In addition to sonnets, Bowles wrote numerous shorter poems during the period 1789 to 1809. Among the most successful were Monody Written at Matlock (1791), Coombe Ellen (1798), and St. Michael's Mount (1798). He also produced several long poems in blank verse such as The Spirit of Discovery (1804), consisting of more than 2,000 lines celebrating the achievements of discoverers from Noah to Captain Cook. The poem's epic proportions and unintended imitation of Milton's style prompted Lord Byron to parody it in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809). Bowles's other long poems were The Missionary (1813), which featured exotic characters and was set in the Andes Mountains of South America; The Grave of the Last Saxon (1822), an epic set in England during the Norman Conquest; Days Departed, Or, Banwell Hill (1828), a local poem reflecting Bowles's antiquarian interests; and St. John in Patmos (1832), on the revelations of St. John the Divine. Over the years the tone of these ambitious longer poems grew increasingly didactic, the landscape descriptions that were so successful in Bowles's early work now providing a springboard for moralizing analogies.
In 1806, Bowles edited and published Alexander Pope's works in ten volumes; in it, he criticized Pope's morals as well as his poetry, reviving a scholarly dispute about Pope's proper place in the poetic hierarchy. Over the next several years Bowles was attacked, most notably by Byron, for disparaging Pope, and in response to these attacks, Bowles issued Invariable Principles of Poetry (1819) in which he outlined his critical perspective. An attack on Bowles's principles followed in the Quarterly Review, which led to a series of articles, letters, and pamphlets by Pope's defenders and detractors, particularly Byron and Bowles, which lasted until 1825 when Bowles published A Final Appeal to the Literary Public, Relative to Pope.
In 1835 Bowles issued Scenes and Shadows of Days Departed, With Selections from Poems, Illustrative of a Long Journey through Life, From the Earliest Recollections to Age, in which he discussed the various influences on his early work and explained his choice of the sonnet form, stating that fourteen lines best suited his idea of “unity of sentiment.”
Bowles's work was well received when first published. He seemed, in fact, the first poet to abandon eighteenth-century poetic conventions in favor of something new, particularly in terms of subject matter. His first collection of sonnets sold well, and some of his earliest customers were to become major figures in the Romantic period; Robert Southey, William Wordsworth, and particularly Samuel Taylor Coleridge, were all admirers of Bowles in their youth. Wordsworth claimed, in what has become a well-known anecdote, that he purchased a copy of Fourteen Sonnets, started reading, and was so taken by it that he sat down in a niche on the London Bridge to read it through while his brother grew impatient waiting for him. Coleridge called Bowles “exquisite” and claimed he was “the first who combined natural thoughts with natural diction; the first who reconciled the heart with the head.” In his Biographia Literaria, Coleridge described his enthusiasm for Bowles's sonnets: “As my school finances did not permit me to purchase copies, I made, within less than a year and a half, more than forty transcriptions, as the best presents I could offer to those who had in any way won my regard.” Many critics believe that Bowles's sonnet “To the River Itchin” was the direct inspiration for Coleridge's “To the River Otter,” although others, among them A. Harris Fairbanks, claim that Bowles's mentor, Thomas Warton, provided the source for both sonnets with his own “To the River Lodon.”
As Coleridge matured as a critic, Bowles seemed to decline as a poet, and Coleridge's opinion of Bowles cooled considerably. In 1802, he wrote to William Sotheby: “The truth is, Bowles has indeed the sensibility of a poet, but he has not the passion of a great poet.” Coleridge was also disturbed by the didactic nature of Bowles's later works, particularly the longer poems in blank verse, complaining of Bowles's “trick of moralizing everything.” Since then, debate has raged among literary scholars as to the extent of Bowles's influence on Coleridge and other Romantic poets. Some critics suggest that Coleridge's debt to Bowles is slight; others claim that Bowles's role as a pioneer was considerable. Paul Bauschatz, for example, insists that Bowles's influence on Romantic poetry was not limited to subject matter but encompassed new forms of rhetoric and diction as well. Bowles is often credited with revitalizing the sonnet form and J. B. Bamborough claims for him a considerable role in popularizing river sonnets in particular.
Most critics agree, though, that while Bowles may have suggested a new direction for poetry, it was up to his disciples to bring it to fruition. As Bamborough states: “In 1789, he was a pioneer; by 1800—half a century before he died—he was outdated.” Even the sympathetic George Gilfillan, who called him “the father of modern poetry,” acknowledged his limitations. In the twentieth century, his reputation rests almost entirely on the influence he had on the more famous poets who followed him. According to A. J. A. Waldock: “His claim on our interest is that he once interested some other people—Coleridge above all.” M. A. Abrams concurs, questioning the basis of that interest in the first place: “Why Coleridge should have been moved to idolatry by so slender, if genuine a talent as that of Bowles has been an enigma of literary history.”
Regarding Bowles as a critic, again his work was more influential than excellent—particularly in the Pope controversy. According to Greeves, he had “a large share in bringing about the reaction against Pope, and in formulating the literary ideals of his generation.” But his criticism was considered inferior to that of his mentor Joseph Warton, whose low assessment of Pope undoubtedly inspired Bowles to renew the controversy.
Fourteen Sonnets, Elegiac and Descriptive, Written During a Tour (poetry) 1789; enlarged as Sonnets, Written Chiefly on Picturesque Spots. During a Journey 1789
Monody, Written at Matlock, October, 1791 (poetry) 1791
St. Michael's Mount, A Poem (poetry) 1798
Coombe Ellen: A Poem, Written in Radnorshire, September, 1798 (poetry) 1798
The Spirit of Discovery, or, The Conquest of the Ocean. A poem, in Five Books: With Notes, Historical and Illustrative (poetry) 1804
The Works of Alexander Pope, Esq. In Verse and Prose 10 vols. [editor] (poetry and prose, with a memoir by Bowles) 1806
The Missionary, A Poem (poetry) 1813
The Invariable Principles of Poetry, In a Letter Addressed to Thomas Campbell, Esq.; Occasioned by Some Critical Observations in His Specimens of the British Poets, Particularly Relating to the Poetical Character of Pope (criticism) 1819
The Grave of the Last Saxon, Or, The Legend of The Curfew, A Poem (poetry) 1822
A Final Appeal to the Literary Public, Relative to Pope, in Reply to Certain Observations of Mr. Roscoe, in His Edition of that Poet's Works. To Which Are Added, Some Remarks on Lord Byron's Conversations, As Far As They Relate to the Same Subject and the Author (criticism) 1825
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SOURCE: “Memoir and Criticism on the Works of the Rev. W. L. Bowles,” in The Poetical Works of William Lisle Bowles, James Nichol, 1855, pp. v-xviii.
[In the following excerpt, Gilfillan praises Bowles as a pioneer of modern poetry.]
William Lisle Bowles—whom we have ventured to call the father of modern poetry, since not only was he first in the field, but since his sonnets inspired the more powerful muse of Coleridge—was descended from an ancient and respectable family in Wiltshire. His grandfather and father were both clergymen in the Church of England. The poet was born in King's Sutton, and baptized there on the 25th of September 1762. In the year 1776 he was placed on the Wykeham foundation at Winchester. His master was Dr Joseph Warton, who, seeing genius disguised under the veil of his pupil's boyish timidity, encouraged him in his efforts, was warmly loved by Bowles in return, and transmitted to him his very moderate estimate of the poetry and character of Pope. Bowles has testified his gratitude to his teacher in his very pleasing “Monody on the Death of Dr Warton.” During the last year he passed at Winchester, Bowles was captain of the school. In the year 1781, he was elected a scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, having selected this college, because the brother of his old master, Thomas Warton, was residing there. In 1783, he gained the Chancellor's prize for Latin...
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SOURCE: “William Lisle Bowles,” in Eighteenth Century Literature: An Oxford Miscellany, Clarendon Press, 1909, pp. 151-83.
[In the following essay, Casson discusses Bowles's role as both poet and critic in the transition from eighteenth century poetry to Romantic poetry.]
In the transition from the poetry of the eighteenth century to the poetry of the Romantic Movement, no critic has been able to put down his finger and say, ‘Here the old ended, the new began.’ Indeed, the lover of paradox might plausibly assert that the transition dates from the birth of the older school. But no critic could deny the paramount importance of the Lyrical Ballads, as the unmistakable manifesto of the later poetry. If, then, by his art a poet can be shown to have affected the two authors of that book, he may be reasonably regarded as having borne a share in the creation of the new forms. And if, in addition he assailed the criterions of the earlier faith in such a way as to provoke the bitter retaliation of its defenders, he may be said to have contributed, not only to the inception of another practice, but also to the erection of a new theory. Such a poet, and such a critic, was Bowles; it is in these two capacities that he will be here regarded.
Not, indeed, that this was the full extent of his activities. In a life of eighty-eight years, he combined also the offices of country parson,...
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SOURCE: “Coleridge and a Poets' Poet: William Lisle Bowles,” in English Miscellany, Vol. 14, 1963, pp 95-114.
[In the following essay, Doughty explores Bowles's influence on three young Romantic poets: Southey, Wordsworth, and Coleridge.]
Such verse as Bowles, heart-honoured poet sang, That wakes the tear yet steals away the pang,
Amongst the various publications of the year 1789, in England, there appeared a small anonymous volume, a mere pamphlet indeed, issued at Bath, and entitled Fourteen Sonnets, written chiefly on Picturesque Spots during a Journey, 1789. The author, William Lisle Bowles, was a clergyman with means and leisure, a graduate of Trinity College, Oxford, and now 27 years of age. Bowles could never have expected the immediate popularity his little book gained, so unpretentious in form and content. Nor was its popularity short-lived. A second edition appeared before the close of the year, seven editions before the end of the century, and a continuous demand followed until the beginning of the Victorian Age. From time to time, Bowles not only added more sonnets to his original fourteen, but also made alternations to the text.
It was not, however, this general popularity which has preserved for Bowles his niche in the hall of poetic fame, but the fact that his book excited the enthusiasm of the three leading poets of...
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SOURCE: “Structure and Style in the Greater Romantic Lyric,” in From Sensibility to Romanticism: Essays Presented to Frederick A. Pottle, edited by Frederick W. Hilles and Harold Bloom, Oxford University Press, 1965, pp. 527-57.
[In the following excerpt, Abrams examines a mystery that has puzzled many literary scholars; that is, why such a minor poet as Bowles would inspire such enthusiastic praise from major Romantic poets, particularly Samuel Taylor Coleridge.]
COLERIDGE AND BOWLES
I have quoted Coleridge's derogation of Gray from the first chapter of the Biographia Literaria, in which Coleridge reviewed his own early development as a poet. To Gray's style he opposed that of three poems, the only contemporary models he mentioned with approval; and all three, it is important to note, were of a type which combines local description with associated meditation. One was William Crowe's conventional prospect poem, Lewesdon Hill (1788) and another was Cowper's The Task, which incorporated a number of episodic meditations evoked by the environs of the river Ouse. Both these poems, however, he read later—The Task, he says, “many years” later—than a publication which at once seized irresistibly upon his sensibility, William Lisle Bowles's Sonnets of 1789. By these poems he was “year after year … enthusiastically delighted and...
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SOURCE: “William Lisle Bowles and the Riparian Muse,” in Essays and Poems Presented to Lord David Cecil, Constable, 1970, pp. 93-108.
[In the following essay, Bamborough traces the development of early Romantic river sonnets and credits Bowles with popularizing the form.]
Bowles's place in literary history is secure, if a little paradoxical. The publication of his sonnets in 1789 won him virtually immediate recognition, and for the next two decades his influence was widespread. His only serious rival as a sonneteer was Charlotte Smith, with whom his name was frequently coupled;1 his sonnets are undoubtedly better than hers, but the fact that he is still to some degree recognized as a poet while she is not is probably more the result of the tributes paid to him by the first Romantics. Southey freely acknowledged his debt to Bowles, but better known than his references are Coleridge's account of how he was introduced to Bowle's Sonnets, written chiefly in Picturesque Spots by his friend Thomas Middleton, was immediately enthused and copied them out no fewer than forty times in order to give them to his friends, and the story of how John Wordsworth was kept waiting on Westminster Bridge while his brother devoured the Fourteen Sonnets.2 It is true that the enthusiasm of both Wordsworth and Coleridge became in later years considerably tempered, but their early feelings...
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SOURCE: “‘Dear Native Brook’: Coleridge, Bowles, and Thomas Warton, the Younger,” in Wordsworth Circle, Vol. 6, 1975, pp. 313-15.
[In the following essay, Fairbanks disputes the widely-held belief that Bowles's “To the River Itchin” inspired Coleridge's “To the River Otter,” and cites a sonnet of Thomas Warton's as the source of both.]
William Lisle Bowles's sonnet “To the River Itchin” has recently achieved some reknown because, in its similarity to Coleridge's “Sonnet: To the River Otter,” it has proved the most convenient example for illustrating the indebtedness to Bowles that Coleridge professes so fervently in the Biographia Literaria.1 In the third edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature, M. H. Abrams reprints both sonnets and asserts in a footnote to Coleridge's that his “model was W. L. Bowles's “To the River Itchin”” (II, 287n.). Likewise, the Oxford Anthology of English Literature (1973) says of “The River Itchin,” “This and similar sonnets by Bowles provided the model for Coleridge's early ‘Sonnet: To the River Otter’” (II, 562). Earlier, Abrams had quoted Bowles's poem in “Structure and Style in the Greater Romantic Lyric,” noting that it “so impressed Coleridge that he emulated it in his sonnet ‘To the River Otter’” (From Sensibility to Romanticism, ed. Frederick W....
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SOURCE: “Wordsworth's Reading of Bowles,” in Notes and Queries, Vol. 30, No. 2, June, 1989, pp. 166-67.
[In the following essay, Wu discusses Bowles's influence on two early sonnets by William Wordsworth.]
At some point after 1828,1 William Wordsworth told Alexander Dyce that he had read William Lisle Bowles's Fourteen Sonnets on publication; his recollection is quite specific:
When Bowles's Sonnets first appeared,—a thin 4to pamphlet, entitled Fourteen Sonnets,—I bought them in a walk through London with my dear brother, who was afterwards drowned at sea.
(Recollections of the Table-Talk of Samuel Rogers, ed. Revd. Alexander Dyce (London, 1856), 261 n.)
Mary Moorman's dating of the walk through London as Christmas 1789,2supported by Mark Reed in his chronology,3is surely correct. It does not, however, accord with Wordsworth's statement, which refers to a purchase on or near the date of publication of Fourteen Sonnets—c. May, not December 1789. In fact, the surviving poetry from this period suggests that Wordsworth did not read the first edition of Bowles's sonnets at all. By December 1789 it would have been far easier to obtain the second edition, also a quarto pamphlet, which had been noticed in the Monthly Review in July. It was...
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SOURCE: An introduction to Fourteen Sonnets 1789, by William Lisle Bowles, Woodstock Books, 1991.
[In the following introduction, Wordsworth briefly discusses earlier poets who influenced Bowles and later poets who Bowles, in turn, inspired.]
Bowles was the poet of a single moment and a single mood. He was a sort of John the Baptist to Coleridge—except that Coleridge started by worshipping him. Wordsworth, late in his life, recalled buying Fourteen sonnets (at Christmas 1789), and annoying his brother John by pausing to read it in a niche of London Bridge. The occasion seems to have been remembered more for John, drowned at sea in 1805, than for the poetry. Bowles was one among many who contributed at this time to the building of Wordsworth's style and sensibility. Charlotte Smith's Elegiac sonnets were as important, Helen Maria Williams was scarcely less so. Bowles's influence on Wordsworth would come at a secondary stage, and chiefly through Coleridge. Coleridge made Bowles his hero. The sonnets appeared at the time of his love for Mary Evans, daughter of the family that befriended him in his half-orphaned city life at Christ's Hospital. He was, as he makes clear in Biographia literaria, waiting to be carried away ‘by a style of poetry, so tender, and yet so manly, so natural and real, and yet so dignified, and harmonious, as the sonnets … of Mr Bowles’.
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SOURCE: “Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Bowles,” in Style, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring, 1993, pp. 17-40.
[In the following essay, Bauschatz claims that Bowles's influence on Romantic poetry was greater than his reputation suggests.]
A. BOWLES'S LANGUAGE AND STYLE
William Wordsworth (1770-1850) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) were both impressed by the poetry of William Lisle Bowles (1762-1850). Wordsworth acquired and read Bowles's Fourteen Sonnets almost as soon as they were published in 1789.1 Coleridge regarded them very highly. His remarks in chapter 1 of the Biographia Literia as well as those in his letters attest to this regard.2 He also wrote one of his “Sonnets on Eminent Characters” to Bowles. To us now, this respect is curious since Bowles seems a somewhat bland poet, a practitioner of conventional late eighteenth-century landscape description with platitudes attached. Our present-day, general sense of Bowles's poetry (and it is uncommon now to have any but a general sense) is that it expresses “the sentiments of a melancholy wanderer, obviously sincere and not without a gentle accomplishment” (Renwick 102). Melancholy is a frequently noted quality: “Love for Nature, relationship of man with Nature, desire for solitude, the subjective element, melancholy, …” (Partridge 121). “Natural” was the term that Coleridge...
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Greever, Garland. A Wiltshire Parson and His Friends: The Correspondence of William Lisle Bowles. London: Constable and Company, 1926, 207 p.
A brief biography of Bowles accompanies this collection of the poet's correspondence.
Little, Geoffrey, and Elizabeth Hall. “Coleridge's ‘To the Rev. W. L. Bowles’: Another Version?” Review of English Studies 32, No. 126 (May 1981): 193-96.
Suggests a possible third version of Coleridge's well-known tribute to Bowles.
Modiano, Raimonda. “Coleridge and Wordsworth: The Ethics of Gift Exchange and Literary Ownership.” Wordsworth Circle 20, No. 2 (Spring 1989): 113-20.
Contends that Coleridge's exaggerated praise of Bowles in Biographia Literaria was prompted less by awe of Bowles's poetry than by a desire to minimize the extent of Wordsworth's influence on him.
Pedley, Colin. “Two More Uncollected Poems by William Lisle Bowles.” Notes and Queries 39, No. 2 (June 1992): 165-67.
Discusses two of Bowles's 1812 poems that do not appear in the collections of his work.
Raycroft, Brent. “From Charlotte Smith to Nehemiah Higginbottom: Revising the Genealogy of the Early Romantic Sonnet.” European Romantic Review 9, No. 3...
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