William Jr. Strunk Essay - Critical Essays

Strunk, William Jr.


Strunk, William Jr. 1869-1946

American educator, editor, and author.

Strunk is the author of The Elements of Style, known as "the little book" of English grammar. Despite its slight size—only forty-three pages—it has remained a useful tool for students of English composition for decades. E. B. White, a former student of Strunk's, revised and updated the book in 1935 and termed The Elements of Style Strunk's parvum opus.

Biographical Information

Strunk was born on 1 July 1869, in Cincinnati, Ohio. He attended the University of Cincinnati and received his undergraduate degree in 1890. He became an instructor of mathematics at the Rose Polytechnic Institute in Terre Haute, Indiana but left to pursue graduate studies in English literature. After earning his doctorate at Cornell University in 1896, he studied at the University of Paris in 1898. A year later he returned to Cornell and became an instructor of English literature. During this time he edited several books on English literature and developed an interest in writing a handbook on English grammar derived from his experience with undergraduate students. Privately printed in 1918, The Elements of Style garnered critical and popular attention for Strunk. Becoming a full professor in 1909, he remained at Cornell until his retirement in 1937. During his career he was recognized not only as the author of The Elements of Style, but also as a respected editor of Shakespearean literature. He died on 26 September 1946.

Major Works

A treatise on the rules of English usage and the principles of composition, The Elements of Style is considered the major achievement of Strunk's career. During his years of teaching English literature at Cornell University, he noted that his students often abused certain rules of composition and grammar. In 1918, he selfpublished a handbook meant to address those abuses, The Elements of Style. Referred to as "the little book," it was only forty-three pages long; despite its small size, it soon became an essential handbook for English composition classes throughout the country. Revised and updated by American author E. B. White in 1935, White classified The Elements of Style as Strunk's "attempt to cut the vast tangle of English rhetoric down to size and write its rules and principles on the head of a pin."

Critical Reception

The Elements of Style has been praised as an effective tool for writers and an essential handbook for students of English grammar and composition. Critics laud Strunk's wit and engaging style, and they deem his attention to the rules of grammar comforting. For decades the book has remained a popular and critical success. The continuing appeal of the "little book" was explained by White, who wrote, "I still find the Strunkian wisdom a comfort, the Strunkian humor a delight, and the Strunkian attitude toward right-and-wrong a blessing undisguised."

Principal Works

The Elements of Style (handbook) 1918; revised and updated by E. B. White, 1935

English Metres (handbook) 1922

The Elements and Practice of Composition [with Edward A. Tenney] (handbook) 1935


E. B. White (essay date 1957)

SOURCE: "William Strunk," in Essays of E. B. White, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1977, pp. 256-61.

[In the following essay, which was originally published in 1957, White offers personal recollections of Strunk and praises The Elements of Style for its brevity and significance.]

AUTHOR'S NOTE. Soon after this piece about Professor Strunk appeared in The New Yorker, a publisher asked me to revise and amplify The Elements of Style in order that it might be reissued. I agreed to do this and did it, but the job, which should have taken about a month's time, took me a year. I discovered that for all my fine talk I was no match for the parts of speech—was, in fact, over my depth and in trouble. Not only that, I felt uneasy at posing as an expert on rhetoric, when the truth is I write by ear, always with difficulty and seldom with any exact notion of what is taking place under the hood.

The Strunk book, which is a "right and wrong" book, arrived on the scene at a time when a wave of reaction was setting in against the permissive school of rhetoric, the Anything Goes school where right and wrong do not exist and there is no foundation all down the line. The little book climbed on this handy wave and rode it in.

It was during the permissive years that the third edition of Webster's New International Dictionary was being put together, along new lines of lexicography, and it was Dr. Gove, the head man, who perhaps expressed the whole thing most succinctly when he remarked that a dictionary "should have no traffic with . . . artificial notions of correctness or superiority. It must be descriptive and not prescriptive." This approach struck many people as chaotic and degenerative, and that's the way it struck me. Strunk was a fundamentalist; he believed in right and wrong, and so, in the main, do I. Unless someone is willing to entertain notions of superiority, the English language disintegrates, just as a home disintegrates unless someone in the family sets standards of good taste, good conduct, and simple justice.

Turtle Bay, July 15, 1957

Mosquitoes have arrived with the warm nights, and our bedchamber is their theater under the stars. I have been up and down all night, swinging at them with a face towel dampened at one end to give it authority. This morning I suffer from the light-headedness that comes from no sleep—a sort of drunkenness, very good for writing because all sense of responsibility for what the words say is gone. Yesterday evening my wife showed up with a few yards of netting, and together we knelt and covered the fireplace with an illusion veil. It looks like a bride. (One of our many theories is that mosquitoes come down chimneys.) I bought a couple of adjustable screens at the hardware store on Third Avenue and they are in place in the windows; but the window sashes in this building are so old and irregular that any mosquito except one suffering from elephantiasis has no difficulty walking into the room through the space between sash and screen. (And then there is the even larger opening between upper sash and lower sash when the lower sash is raised to receive the screen—a space that hardly ever occurs to an apartment dweller but must occur to all mosquitoes.) I also bought a very old air-conditioning machine for twenty-five dollars, a great bargain, and I like this machine. It has almost no effect on the atmosphere of the room, merely chipping the edge off the heat, and it makes a loud grinding noise reminiscent of the subway, so that I can snap off the lights, close my eyes, holding the damp towel at the ready, and imagine, with the first stab, that I am riding in the underground and being pricked by pins wielded by angry girls.

Another theory of mine about the Turtle Bay mosquito is that he is swept into one's bedroom through the air conditioner, riding the cool indraft as an eagle rides a warm updraft. It is a feeble theory, but a man has to entertain theories if he is to while away the hours of sleeplessness. I wanted to buy some old-fashioned bug spray, and went to the store for that purpose, but when I asked the clerk for a Flit gun and some Flit, he gave me a queer look, as though wondering where I had been keeping myself all these years. "We got something a lot stronger than that," he said, producing a can of stuff that contained chlordane and several other unmentionable chemicals. I told him I couldn't use it because I was hypersensitive to chlordane. "Gets me right in the liver," I said, throwing a wild glance at him.

The mornings are the pleasantest times in the apartment, exhaustion having set in, the sated mosquitoes at rest on ceiling and walls, sleeping it off, the room a swirl of tortured bedclothes and abandoned garments, the vines in their full leafiness filtering the hard light of day, the air conditioner silent at last, like the mosquitoes. From Third Avenue comes the sound of the mad builders—American cicadas, out in the noonday sun. In the garden the sparrow chants—a desultory second courtship, a subdued passion, in keeping with the great heat, love in summer-time, relaxed and languorous. I shall miss this apartment when it is gone; we are quitting it come fall, to turn ourselves out to pasture. Every so often I make an attempt to simplify my life, burning my books behind me, selling the occasional chair, discarding the accumulated miscellany. I have noticed, though, that these purifications of mine—to which my wife submits with cautious grace—have usually led to even greater complexity in the long pull, and I have no doubt this one will, too, for I don't trust myself in a situation of this sort and suspect that my first act as an old horse will be to set to work improving the pasture. I may even join a pasture-improvement society. The last time I tried to purify myself by fire, I managed to acquire a zoo in the process and am still supporting it and carrying heavy pails of water to the animals, a task that is sometimes beyond my strength.

A book I have decided not to get rid of is a small one that arrived in the mail not long ago, a gift from a friend in Ithaca. It is The Elements of Style, by the late William Strunk, Jr., and it was known on the Cornell campus in my day as "the little book," with the stress on the word "little." I must have once owned a copy, for I took English 8 under Professor Strunk in 1919 and the book was required reading, but my copy presumably failed to survive an early purge. I'd not laid eyes on it in thirty-eight years. Am now delighted to study it again and rediscover its rich deposits of gold.

The Elements of Style was Will Strunk's parvum opus, his attempt to cut the vast tangle of English rhetoric down to size and write its rules and principles on the head of a pin. Will himself hung the title "little" on the book: he referred to it sardonically and...

(The entire section is 2874 words.)

P. F. Baum (essay date 1960)

SOURCE: A review of The Elements of Style, in The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. LIX, No. 1, Winter, 1960, pp. 128-29.

[In the following essay, Baum provides a favorable assessment of White's revision of The Elements of Style.

It is a melancholy thought, sometimes, that the language we are born to, which we practice daily—speaking, reading, and occasionally writing—should be so vexatious when we are asked to use it properly. Custom never seems to mitigate its infinite complexity. In the home and in secondary schools something is done about it; but there the Law of Hydrostatics is operant. In the colleges Freshman English is a perpetual trial, when the poor...

(The entire section is 646 words.)

Robert Kanigel (essay date 1982)

SOURCE: A review of The Elements of Style, in Los Angeles Times Book Review, August 22, 1982, p. 4.

[In the following laudatory review, Kanigel deems The Elements of Style as a "monument to clear thinking cleanly voiced. "]

The world would be a better place if everybody read The Elements of Style; if it were read not just by writers and journalists, but by all who write legal briefs, job applications, love letters, or notes to the teacher; read even by those who never write anything. Even a single reading of the Strunk and White classic imparts immunity to bureaucratic gobbledy-gook, technocratic jargon and psychobabble (at least temporarily). If...

(The entire section is 747 words.)

Trish Deitch Rohrer (essay date 1990)

SOURCE: "A Small Masterpiece," in GQ, Vol. 60, No. 12, December, 1990, pp. 72, 76.

[In the following essay, Rohrer praises White's revisions to Strunk's The Elements of Style.]

It was an instance of fate that, in 1919, young E. B. White found himself in William Strunk Jr.'s English 8 class at Cornell. Strunk was then teaching grammar from a forty-three-page rule book he'd written and privately published and that he called The Elements of Style. But it wasn't Strunk's homegrown style manual that made a lasting impression on White (White, in fact, quickly forgot the book), it was the man.

"From every line there peers out at me the puckish face of...

(The entire section is 1200 words.)

Debra Fried (essay date 1991)

SOURCE: "Bewhiskered Examples in 'The Elements of Style'," in Western Humanities Review, Vol. XLV, No. 4, Winter, 1991, pp. 304-11.

[In the following essay, Fried analyzes Strunk and White's handbook from a feminist perspective.]

The debate that feminist criticism must hold with Strunk and White's standard composition handbook, The Elements of Style, is a version of a polite spat about diction which takes place in the eleventh chapter of Middlemarch:

—All choice of words is slang. It marks a class.

—There is correct English. That is not slang.

—I beg your pardon:...

(The entire section is 3916 words.)