Byrd, William II
William Byrd, II 1674-1744
American travel writer, historian, and diarist.
Although he published little during his lifetime, Byrd is now regarded as one of the most important American authors of the colonial period. His History of the Dividing Line (published 1841) and Secret History of the Line (published 1929), describing his travels through Virginia and North Carolina, are seen as important historical records and classic portraits of backwoods life in the mid-eighteenth century. Byrd's diaries, written between 1728 and 1741 but not published until the 1940s and 1950s, reveal a complex Virginia gentleman and provide details about daily life during the period. His satirical look at life in colonial Virginia depicts those times in a way that is not found in other, more staid, writings. Because Byrd wrote prolifically but rarely published his works, his writings have also been studied for what they reveal about writing for personal satisfaction rather than for an audience and to explore how the act of writing is used by the writer to forge his own identity.
Byrd was born in Westover, Virginia, in March, 1674, the son of William Byrd and Mary Filmer. Byrd's father had emigrated from England in the late 1660s to inherit a fur trade and 3,000 acres of land on the Virginia frontier, and his mother was a member of the Cavalier elite who had fled Cromwell's England. At age seven Byrd was sent to England for his education. He attended the prestigious Felsted School in Essex, traveled extensively through Europe studying commerce, and then studied law at the Middle Temple in London. In 1697 he was accepted into the Royal Society of Great Britain, a group whose mission it was to advance English society. He traveled around England visiting libraries, read voraciously and acquired his own vast law library, attended the theater, and made daily rounds of the coffee houses. After his father's death in 1705, Byrd was forced to return to Westover. He received his inheritance, managed the family estate, and took over his father's lucrative post as Receiver General. He settled into a quiet life, marrying Lucy Parke in 1706. He continued his passionate interest in reading and acquiring books, adding a separate structure to his house for what would become one of the largest colonial libraries, which included titles on law, medicine, art, architecture, gardening, history, travel, literature, and theology. Shortly after he returned to Virginia, Byrd began keeping a diary, in which he would write almost every day for the next thirty-five years. He recorded his daily regimen of rising early, reading Greek or Hebrew texts, dancing, praying, eating, walking in his garden with his wife, and managing his servants and slaves. He also wrote about his emotions, nightmares, sexual feelings and encounters, acts of corporal punishment, and the death of his infant son.
In 1716, while the family was in England, Byrd's wife died, leaving behind two young daughters. For the next nine years Byrd lived in England, where he unsuccessfully sought economic and political help for Virginia from the British government, wrote some light verse, and continued reading and writing in his diary. In 1724, after a series of romantic failures, he married Maria Taylor. He returned to Virginia and accepted his situation as a colonial estate owner and Southern gentleman. He acquired thousands of acres of land to the west of his estate and tried to encourage a colony of Swiss immigrants to settle there, rebuilt his father's estate, entertained and wrote to important naturalists, and founded the cities of Richmond and Petersburg. In 1728 Byrd was appointed one of the commissioners to survey the boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina. To encourage individuals to buy property and thus expand both colonies westward, it was necessary to ascertain which colony should govern and tax the disputed land along the border. The official journal that Byrd kept throughout the trip served as the factual basis for The Secret History of the Line and The History of the Dividing Line. For the last fifteen years of his life Byrd enjoyed his position as a Southern gentleman, although he was forced to sell off parts of his estate to settle his former father-in-law's debts. His financial situation prevented him from returning to England, where he had hoped to spend his last years among old friends. He died on his Westover estate in 1744 and was buried in the garden there.
Although he wrote almost daily, Byrd published very little during his lifetime. He published a scientific paper while in his early twenties, some light verse, and an anonymous pamphlet entitled A Discourse Concerning the Plague in 1721. He left an enormous body of work, however, including four complete travel narratives, character sketches, satiric essays, translations, love poetry and occasional verse, and letters. Byrd's literary work remained unknown until nearly a hundred years after his death, when the 1841 publication of the The Westover Manuscripts: Containing The History of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina; A Journey to the Land of Eden, A.D. 1733; and A Progress to the Mines established Byrd as an important historical figure.
Probably written before the longer History of the Dividing Line, Byrd's Secret History of the Line (published in William Byrd's Histories of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina in 1929) was written for a small circle of his friends in Virginia. Developed from the notes of his surveying trips to North Carolina, the narrative includes unflattering descriptions and details of the sexual escapades of the commissioners who were in the surveying party. The History of the Dividing Line is a fuller version which did not refer to participants by their true names. Obviously intended for public consumption, it offers a humorous look at backwoods life in the mid-eighteenth century and includes references to classical sources, other travel narratives, and natural histories. Two other surveying trips that Byrd took also resulted in narratives. The Progress to the Mines is the story of Byrd's investigation into iron smelting at Fredericksburg, and A Journey to the Land of Eden describes an inspection tour of his landholdings on the Dan River. Both these works, like the History of the Dividing Line, present humorously entertaining lore and facts about frontier life.
Although they were not discovered until 1939 and published only in the 1940s and 1950s, Byrd's diaries are today probably his best-known works. Considered essential documents of private life in colonial America, they offer readers an unparalleled glimpse into the world of a Virginia gentleman. In 1939 the first of the three known Byrd diaries was discovered at the Huntington Library in California. The journals were written in a cryptic shorthand, and after they were deciphered revealed a fascinating record of the details of Byrd's early years as a planter. They were edited and published by Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling in 1941 as The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 1709-1712. A second journal together with some of Byrd's correspondence and literary exercises was discovered and published in 1942 by the same editors. An earlier journal, covering the years 1717-1721, was published in 1958 as The London Diary. All Byrd's journals offer insights into his social and political attitudes, covering issues ranging from his ideas about the role of women, the British government's responsibility to the colonies, the American wilderness, slavery, and relations with Native Americans. They also present a portrait of a complex human being who describes his feelings about his wife and children, his attitude toward his writing, and his sexual appetite. Although he sometimes writes about serious issues, the diaries are generally written in a cheerful and entertaining manner, and their documentation of the period from 1709 to 1741 in colonial America has been described as “one of the most complete, entertaining and informative cultural documents about eighteenth-century life in the Old and New Worlds that we have in the English language.”
During his lifetime Byrd was well known in London for his interest in literary matters and books, but he was no literary personage. As a member of the Royal Society, he was acquainted with such notable writers and thinkers as Isaac Newton, Robert Southwell, William Congreve, and Nicholas Rowe. He maintained a lifelong interest in drama and natural science, but he wrote very little in those areas. Most of what Byrd did write, apart from his diaries, was circulated in manuscript form among his friends—a fairly common practice among the aristocracy—but very little was published during his lifetime. One of his letters reveals that he did not feel his works were sufficiently “complete” to be printed. It was only after the publication of his Westover Manuscripts in 1841 that Byrd was regarded as an important historical figure. He was seen as one of the first writers to offer a complex description of the American wilderness and to write about its importance to the American identity. It was noted too that, unlike much other early American literature, Byrd's narratives do not focus on religion but use a witty, urbane style to talk about secular matters. With the publication of his diaries in the twentieth century, Byrd's reputation as one of the most significant figures in colonial Virginia grew, and his works came to be regarded as important cultural documents about life in the early 1700s. His London Diary has even been compared with Samuel Pepys's famous journal.
Critics have focused on what Byrd's works reveal about the author's interests, attitudes, character, misogyny, and “Southernness.” They have explored differences between his private and public personas and have analyzed his use of satire and ironic critical distance in his writing. Some commentators have been particularly interested in the differences between The History of The Dividing Line and The Secret History, observing that they present two versions of American reality: one a panegyric devoted to civilization's westward progress and the other a satire of its wilderness degeneration. Byrd's diaries have been commended for their intimate self-expression as well as their historical value. Critics generally admire Byrd's style, and his satirical wit and valuable record of Southern life have won him a reputation as one of the foremost colonial authors.
A Disclosure Concerning the Plague, With Some Preservatives Against It. By a Lover of Mankind [attributed to Byrd] (pamphlet) 1721
The Westover Manuscripts: Containing The History of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina; A Journey to the Land of Eden, A.D. 1733; and A Progress to the Mines. Written from 1728 to 1736 [edited by Edmund Ruffin] (nonfiction) 1841
The History of the Dividing Line and Other Tracts. 2 vols. (nonfiction) 1866
The Writings of “Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, Esqr.,” [edited by John S. Bassett] (nonfiction) 1901
Description of the Dismal Swamp and A Proposal to Drain the Swamp [edited by Earl G. Swem] (nonfiction) 1922
A Journey to the Land of Eden and Other Papers [edited by Mark VanDoren] (nonfiction) 1928
*William Byrd's Histories of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina [edited by William K. Boyd] (nonfiction) 1929
The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 1709-1712 [edited by Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling] (journal) 1941
Another Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 1739-1741, With Letters & Literary Exercises, 1696-1726 [edited by Maude H. Woodfin and Tinling] (journal) 1942
The London Diary (1717-1721) and Other Writings [edited...
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SOURCE: Masterson, James R. “William Byrd in Lubberland.” American Literature 9, no. 2 (May 1937): 153-70.
[In the following essay, Masterson considers whether Byrd's negative impressions of colonial North Carolina were shared by other travelers.]
During the spring and autumn of 1728, as one of the Virginia commissioners appointed to run a boundary between Virginia and North Carolina, Colonel William Byrd had occasion to traverse the border from Currituck Inlet, on the Atlantic coast, to a point in the foothills 241 miles to the west. In The History of the Dividing Line Run in the Year of Our Lord 1728 he disparages not only the border country but the whole province of North Carolina, which he declares to approach nearer than any other part of the world to “the Description of Lubberland.”1 Scattered among notes of surveying, reports of Indian customs, and accounts of swamp and wilderness, his strictures upon North Carolina may be collected as an indictment with six heads.
(I) The inhabitants of North Carolina suffer disadvantages natural to their place of residence. Some parts of the province are almost as sandy and barren as the deserts of Africa (p. 90);2 others are swampy and unhealthful. The lower grounds (p. 50), including Edenton, the capital (p. 74), are infested by “that Carolina plague, musquetos” (p. 96). For want of navigation and...
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SOURCE: Wright, Louis B. “The Byrds' Progress from Trade to Genteel Elegance.” In The First Gentlemen of Virginia: Intellectual Qualities of the Early Colonial Ruling Class, pp. 312-47. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1940.
[In the following excerpt, Wright presents an overview of Byrd's life, interests, attitudes, character, and writing.]
A large part of Byrd's life before his return to Virginia in 1705 had been spent abroad in varied activities that had given him a well-rounded education. Academic learning, business training, and social opportunities had all gone into the experience of the young man who was to become the most accomplished Virginian of his time. When he came back to London from Holland in 1690 and went into the counting-house of Perry & Lane, he had no intention of staying there long; after learning something of the ways of business he entered the Middle Temple, in April, 1692, and in due course was admitted to the bar.1 On a visit home in 1696 he was elected for the first time to the House of Burgesses.
The years spent as a member of the Middle Temple were among the gayest of his life. With other young blades of his circle, he indulged in his share of gallantries and sowed the usual crop of wild oats. A hint at his rakehell days is found in one of Byrd's letters, written over forty years later, to his friend, Judge Benjamin Lynde, of Salem,...
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SOURCE: Marambaud, Pierre. “Diarist.” In William Byrd of Westover, 1674-1744, pp. 106-16. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1971.
[In the following excerpt, Marambaud examines Byrd's diaries, which, the critic maintains, are examples of intimate self-expression but also valuable historical documents.]
Byrd's diaries were not published until recently. According to family traditions, he never failed to keep a detailed journal in shorthand when absent from home.1 In fact, as we now know, he kept it at Westover as well as when he was away, and it is fairly probable that he did so throughout most of his adult life, but that a great part of it has been lost.
Three portions have come to light in our century. The earliest known diary, covering the period from February 1709 to September 1712, was purchased from the estate of R. A. Brock in 1922 by Henry Huntington as part of a collection of Virginia manuscripts. It lay in the Huntington Library, San Marino, California, until it was discovered in 1939. Deciphered by Mrs. Marion Tinling (who was also to transcribe the other shorthand diaries) and edited by Louis B. Wright, it was published in 1941 as The Secret Diary William Byrd of Westover.
Another part of Byrd's diary, from August 1739 to August 1741, was published in the next year. First identified in 1925 by the librarian of the University...
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SOURCE: Siebert, Donald T., Jr. “William Byrd's Histories of the Line: The Fashioning of a Hero.” American Literature 47, no. 4 (January 1976): 535-51.
[In the following essay, Siebert argues that the portrait of Byrd painted by most critics fails to appreciate his complexities, and he examines Byrd's Histories of the Line to understand the contrast between the author's private and public personas and his struggle to present a heroic image of himself.]
Among colonial writers, William Byrd of Westover appears most deserving of lapidary inscription and idealizing portrait. He is the earliest and perhaps only American type of “the well-bred gentleman and polite companion,” as his epitaph itself would tell us. We see him now gazing out at us in the portrait hanging in Williamsburg, easy and confident, sprightly wit under the control of judgment, Restoration sensuality made over into Epicurean moderation. The impression is elegant and grand, an early pictorial anticipation of the version in marble over his grave, which concludes:
To all this were added a great elegance of taste and life, The well-bred gentleman and polite companion, The splendid economist and prudent father of a family, With the constant enemy of all exorbitant power, And hearty friend to the liberties of his country.
There is pride in this, indeed almost arrogance, curiously softened by...
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SOURCE: Smith, David. “William Byrd Surveys America.” Early American Literature 11, no. 3 (winter 1976-77): 296-310.
[In the following essay, Smith suggests that the idea of the land survey and the image of the boundary are the central, sustaining metaphors in Byrd's Histories of the Line.]
Thus in the beginning all the world was America.
John Locke, “Of Property,” in The Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
When John Locke set himself to thinking about a state of nature, it was natural for him to imagine life in “America” as illustrative of most of his arguments. In a state of nature, with vast tracts of wasteland and plenty for everyone, but no private property as such, “every man's possession” was confined to “a very moderate proportion, and such as he might appropriate to himself without injury to anybody in the first ages of the world, when men were more in danger to be lost by wandering from their company in the then vast wilderness of the earth than to be straitened for want of room to plant in.” Suppose
a man or family in the state they were at first peopling of the world by the children of Adam or Noah, let him plant in some inland, vacant places of America, we shall find that possessions he could make himself, upon the measures...
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SOURCE: Pudaloff, Ross. “‘A Certain Amount of Excellent English’: The Secret Diaries of William Byrd.” Southern Literary Journal 15, no. 1 (fall 1982): 101-19.
[In the following essay, Pudaloff explores Byrd's secret diaries and contrasts the persona revealed in those works with that presented in his public writings.]
In most books, the I, or first person, is omitted; in this it will be retained; that, in respect to egotism, is the main difference. We commonly do not remember that it is, after all, always the first person that is speaking.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden
Since the earliest of the extant secret diaries of William Byrd dates from 1709 and the latest from 1741, we can assume that he must have possessed good reasons to keep these records of his life so rigorously for himself. Yet the use of a shorthand code seems, if not unnecessary, at the least excessive in light of the routinized and banal qualities of these journals. Most of their readers have admitted that the diaries are inane and trivial documents of less historical and critical interest than one might hope or expect. They conflate the intimate and the superficial, lack the wealth of detail to interest the social historian, offer no interpretation of his life by Byrd, and repeat in nearly every entry the same written form and daily routine. In the...
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SOURCE: Lockridge, Kenneth A. “‘The Female Creed’: Misogyny Enlightened?” In On the Sources of Patriarchal Rage: The Commonplace Books of William Byrd and Thomas Jefferson and the Gendering of Power in the Eighteenth Century, pp. 29-45. New York: New York University Press, 1992.
[In the following excerpt, Lockridge analyzes the reasons for Byrd's tempered yet intense disdain for women as set out in the satirical essay “The Female Creed” that appears in one of his secret diaries.]
At the very moment when he was recording his private fears about himself and about women in his commonplace book, William Byrd was aiming a public dart of misogyny at women in the form of an essay called “The Female Creed,” dated to the year 1725. Here, many of the same constructions of women would be offered and if anything deepened into an implied portrait of what Susan Gubar has called “The Female Monster” of the Augustan age. Yet “The Female Creed” is also a curiously gentle satire, and it may foretell an age in which overt, scarifying misogyny was to pass out of fashion. Not out of men's minds, perhaps, or out of their private musings, but out of public discourse.1 If this is true, then private misogyny of the sort found in Byrd's commonplace was to become one of the last refuges of expression for the intense hatred of women which had hitherto been equally welcome in the public...
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SOURCE: Manning, Susan. “Industry and Idleness in Colonial Virginia: A New Approach to William Byrd II.” Journal of American Studies 28, no. 2 (August 1994): 169-90.
[In the following essay, Manning argues that the “southernness” of Byrd's prose in his History of the Dividing Line is deliberate and self-conscious.]
The inception of American regionalism is routinely identified by scholars in either Robert Beverley or William Byrd II, both native Virginians who wrote intensely local works (The History and Present State of Virginia, 1705; The History of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina, Run in the Year of Our Lord 1728) which are amongst the enduring literary products of colonial America. The regional base of both works is immediately apparent in their subjects and setting; but to stop here is to leave critical questions unanswered, questions which have in recent years begun to be addressed by ethnographers and historians such as David Bertelson, Michael Zuckerman and Kenneth Lockridge.1 In particular, Lockridge's study, meshing biography, history and social psychology, has proposed an illuminating “reconstruction of Byrd's personality” from his writings, an account which stresses Byrd's cultural predicament as a provincial Virginian who strove to be an English gentleman.2 My purpose in this paper is not to challenge such an...
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Cutting, Rose Marie. “Writings About William Byrd II, 1817-1974.” In John and William Bartram, William Byrd II and St. John de Crèvecoeur: A Reference Guide, pp. 73-106. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1976.
Annotated bibliography of critical studies on Byrd published between 1817 and 1974.
Beatty, Richmond Croom. William Byrd of Westover. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932, 223 p.
Important early biography that attempts to presents a faithful picture of an idealized persona, distinguishing between reality and myth and not neglecting the more unfortunate side of colonial life.
Hatch, Alden. The Byrds of Virginia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969, 535 p.
Study of the public service of the Byrd family, beginning with William I. The chapter on William Byrd II offers a detailed, chronological account of his life.
Lockridge, Kenneth A. The Diary, and Life, of William Byrd II of Virginia, 1674-1744. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987, 199 p.
Attempts to explore Byrd's inner life by looking at his diaries and suggesting how the early culture of Virginia shaped his personality.
Arner, Robert D. “Westover and the Wilderness: William...
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