Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
William Thomas Gaddis was born in New York City on December 29, 1922, the only child of parents who were divorced when he was three years old. His mother soon moved to Massapequa, Long Island, where Gaddis was raised in a house that would eventually serve as a model for the Bast house in his second novel, JR (1975). On his mother’s side, Gaddis’s family were Quakers, but he was brought up in a strict Calvinist tradition upon which he would draw for his first novel, The Recognitions (1955).
An intensely private man, Gaddis granted few interviews, and little is known about his life. He always preferred that his novels speak for themselves. It is known, however, that between the ages of five and thirteen, he was educated at a boarding school in Berlin, Connecticut, and that he later attended Farmingdale High School in Long Island. These experiences appear to have provided material for the vividly anguished recollections of his fictional character Jack Gibbs in JR, who cynically laments a lonely and emotionally unsatisfying childhood. Indeed, in Gaddis’s novels much of the alienation, disorder, and strife that sets the narratives in motion and besets the characters has its beginning in the absence or death of the protagonists’ fathers.
While in high school, Gaddis contracted a rare disease, erythema grave, upon whose symptoms of high fever and delusions he draws for Wyatt Gwyon, the protagonist of his first novel. Though easily cured with modern drugs, a kidney disorder that was a side effect of his treatment left Gaddis unfit for military service in World War II. Throughout the war he was a student at Harvard University. Enrolling in September, 1941, Gaddis majored in English literature, joined the staff of the Lampoon (a satirical campus magazine) in 1943, and then, beginning in September, 1944, took over the prestigious post of Lampoon president. This work provided Gaddis his first outlet for publication. His early pieces covered a wide range of forms: reviews, verse parodies, essays, short fictions, and satires of such forms as the scientific report.
Gaddis’s Harvard career was cut short in his senior year. He and a drinking companion tangled with the Cambridge police, word of it came to the college...
(The entire section is 977 words.)
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Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
It has often been noted that a satirist functions as the infuriated conscience of his or her national culture. The novels of Gaddis attest the accuracy of that statement. Gaddis’s principal subject concerns the terms of failure in America. Like F. Scott Fitzgerald, Mark Twain, or Herman Melville, Gaddis took issue with the democratic ideal that success in great things shall come to all Americans who simply work hard for it. Throughout his writing runs the counterconviction that even small successes come only through hard-fought moral, aesthetic, and spiritual struggles.
Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
After spending his early childhood in New York City and on Long Island, William Thomas Gaddis attended a private boarding school in Connecticut for nine years. He then returned to Long Island to attend public school from grade eight through high school. He was accepted by Harvard in 1941 and stayed there until 1945, when he took a job as a reader and fact-checker for The New Yorker, a position he left after one year in order to travel. In the years that followed, he visited Central America, the Caribbean, North Africa, and parts of Europe, all of which became settings in his first novel. He continued to write after returning to the United States, and in 1955, with ten years of effort behind him, he published The Recognitions.
Throughout his life, Gaddis was reluctant to discuss his private life. Although he was sometimes seen at writers’ conferences and occasionally did some teaching, he guarded his privacy extremely well. Two scholars of Gaddis’s work, David Koenig and Steven Moore, made a number of important inferences about Gaddis’s life. For example, theprotagonist of The Recognitions, Wyatt, has a lonely and isolated childhood. His mother dies on an ocean voyage when he is very young, and his father gradually loses his sanity. When Wyatt is twelve, he suffers from a mysterious ailment that the doctors label erythema grave. They mutilate Wyatt’s wasted body and send him home to die because they can find neither a cause nor a cure for his illness;...
(The entire section is 620 words.)
Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
William Thomas Gaddis is regarded as one of the most brilliant and difficult American writers of the twentieth century, the creator of works that are extraordinarily complex in design, language, and vision.
After graduating from Harvard University Gaddis lived in Latin America, Europe, and North Africa between 1947 and 1955, and he was a freelance speech writer and screenwriter between 1956 and 1970. He received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the MacArthur Foundation as well as several prestigious awards, including the 1976 and 1994 National Book Awards for fiction.
The Recognitions, nearly one thousand pages in length and dealing “with such matters as art forgery, counterfeiting, false religious rhetoric, ambidextrous sexuality, the fraudulence of political life, and the masquerades of intellectual and artistic society,” is a Menippean satire on the entire modern world. The largely comic novel is encyclopedic, dense in style as well as content, and it has little traditional plot. There are fifty characters whose lives—their pasts and presents, as well as their anticipated conversations—cross and parallel one another. The story, which covers a thirty-year period, takes place in France, Italy, Spain, New York, and New England.
The central figure, Wyatt Gwyon, rejects his father’s calling as clergyman and instead becomes an artist. Wyatt’s efforts at understanding art in relation to life and true art in relation to counterfeit art involve discoveries regarding the shams and counterfeits of modern life. At the end of his pilgrimage he experiences an epiphany at a Spanish monastery, realizing that art and the preoccupations of the ordinary life are human structures created to save human beings from ultimate chaos. It is during this great spiritual and creative experience that Wyatt gains a recognition of the unity of all living and nonliving things and extends himself beyond the temporal and...
(The entire section is 856 words.)