Biography (Critical Survey of Poetry: British, Irish, & Commonwealth Poets)
William Cowper was born on November 26, 1731, in Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, England. He was the fourth child of the Reverend Dr. John Cowper, rector of Great Berkhampstead, and Ann Donne. Both parents represented distinguished families. The Cowpers had distinguished themselves by loyalty to the Crown, and John Cowper’s uncle, Sir William, had been created baron in 1706 and earl in 1718. The Donnes were of even nobler lineage and traced descent from Henry III. The famous seventeenth century poet, John Donne, was of the same illustrious family. John and Ann had seven children, but only William and their last child, also named John, survived infancy. Very shortly after the birth of John, Ann died; William was only six at the time.
Cowper’s father appears to have been neither a cruel nor especially loving parent. Shortly after Ann’s death, young William was sent away to school. This early separation from his parent—not unusual in upper-class households—seems to have affected the poet greatly, because several years later, Cowper attacked the practice and the school system in general in a poem, Tirocinium (1785). While a student at Westminster, Cowper met his first love, his cousin Theodora. The affair was terminated in 1756, but it is commemorated in nineteen sentimental love poems addressed to Delia. Cowper suffered his first severe attack of depression in 1752. He was studying law at the time and was called to the bar in 1754. Although he had no great fondness for the profession, his family had thought it best that he have some livelihood.
In 1759, Cowper was appointed commissioner of bankrupts, a minor governmental post that paid very little. Out of the need for financial security, he applied for an appointment to the post of clerk of the journals of the House of Lords. When the incumbent clerk died, Cowper’s appointment was put forward only to be challenged by supporters of another candidate. In 1763, Cowper learned that he would have to face an examination to determine the best applicant. This prospect greatly aggravated his already depressed state, and he experienced a severe mental breakdown during which he unsuccessfully attempted suicide. Clearly, he could not occupy a...
(The entire section is 910 words.)
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
One of the forerunners of English Romanticism, William Cowper (KEW-pur) was criticized by his contemporaries who, bred to the formal metrics and diction of Alexander Pope and John Dryden, and to the strong rhythmic patterns of John Milton’s Paradise Lost, complained that his verse was too like prose. Some of Cowper’s verse justifies this charge, but in The Task he developed a new style of blank verse, a relaxed, easy, almost conversational style that was well suited to the rustic, personal content of the poem. The ability to write blank verse that was not dominated by Miltonic rhythms was no small feat, and Cowper’s ease helped lead to the fluent blank verse of William Wordsworth.
Cowper’s life stands in ironic counterpoint to the placid, good-humored subject matter of so much of his poetry. Born at Great Berkhampstead, England, in 1731, he was from an early age afflicted with a profound melancholy that was deepened by his Calvinistic sense of sin. After a good education, he became a law clerk at age eighteen. He fell in love with his cousin, Theodora Cowper, the “Delia” of his poems; her father forbade the match on the basis of consanguinity, but perhaps the young man’s melancholy had as much to do with the refusal. He was then nominated for a clerkship in the House of Lords, but the formality of an examination before the House terrified him. Rather than face it, he attempted suicide and was committed to an asylum for...
(The entire section is 458 words.)