Wilhelm Müller 1794–1827
(Born Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Müller) German lyric poet, letter writer, novella writer, translator, literary critic, editor.
Müller's chief contribution to literature is his production of late Romantic lyric cycles possessing the simplicity of popular folksongs. Within the limits of this type of literature, Müller is significant primarily for his poems about Greece and for two lyric cycles about unrequited love. Müller's series of Lieder der Griechen (Songs of the Greeks), written in support of the Greek struggle for independence from Turkey, is credited with gaining widespread European sympathy for the cause and was Müller's chief claim to fame in his own day. Today Müller is best known for the lyric cycles entitled Die schöne Müllerin (1820; The Pretty Maid of the Mill) and Die Winterreise (1824; The Winter Journey), which describe the wanderings forced respectively on a miller boy and a musician by unrequited love. The fame of each of these cycles as a whole rests primarily on the fact that Franz Peter Schubert set them to music. Certain individual poems from these cycles, however, such as "Das Wandern ist des Müllers Lust" (1820; also known as "Wanderschaft") and "Am Brunnen vor dem Tore" (1824; also known as "Der Lindenbaum"), have had such a lasting appeal that they have become part of the German popular folksong tradition.
Müller was born in Dessau, Germany, in 1794. He grew up very close to the Mulde River, and images of this river and of Dessau occur frequently in Müller's poetry. All of Müller's siblings died during his childhood, and he lost his mother when he was fourteen years old. Müller began writing poetry at this age, but did not sell anything for several years. After his father remarried, taking as his wife a fairly well-to-do widow, Müller was able, by means of the wealth of his new stepmother, to continue his formal education. At the age of eighteen, with the aid of the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, Müller entered the recently-founded University of Berlin, where he studied literature, history, and philology. However, in the following year, he enlisted in the Prussian army in the War of Liberation against Napoleon, who was retreating from the disastrous invasion of Russia. During Müller's tour of duty he stayed
in Brussels where he was involved in a love affair that ended badly. After the war in 1815 Müller returned to his studies at the University of Berlin. The next two years were filled with writing his own verse (including his own part in a high-society parlor operetta of Die schöne Müllerin), with work on his translation entitled Doktor Faustus: Tragödie von Christopher Marlowe (published in 1818), and with work as a literary critic. During this period Müller also fell in love with Louise Hensel, who encouraged his writing career but did not return his affections. In 1817 Müller undertook a trip to Egypt with Baron von Sack to collect inscriptions, but circumstances brought about a prolonged stay in Italy and then a return to Dessau. There Müller began to write a travel book based on his experiences in Rome entitled Rom, Römer und Römerinnen (1820; Rome, Roman Men, and Roman Women). In addition to performing the duties of a public librarian, he wrote critical comments for many literary journals, edited ten volumes of seventeenth-century poetry, and published his first volume of poetry entitled Siebenundsiebzig Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten (1820; Seventy-Seven Poems from the Posthumous Papers of a Traveling French Horn Player). This collection includes the lyric cycle of Die schöne Müllerin, which was an augmented version of the poems written for the parlor operetta during his years at the University of Berlin. In 1821 Müller entered into a love-match marriage with Adelheid von Basedow, who belonged to a prominent family in Dessau. Müller and Adelheid had a daughter, Auguste, and a son, Friedrich Max, who later compiled one of the most extensive collections of Müller's poems entitled simply Gedichte von Wilhelm Müller (1868). In his first year of marriage Müller wrote and published Lieder der Griechen (1821; Songs of the Greeks), a collection of poems about the Greek War of Independence from Turkey. Müller continued to publish poems about the Greeks in the following years: Neue Lieder der Griechen (1823; New Songs of the Greeks), Neueste Lieder der Griechen (1824; The Most Recent Songs of the Greeks), and Missolunghi (1825)—named after the place where Lord Byron died in 1824 while fighting for the Greek cause. Müller won much support in Europe for the cause of Greek democracy and freedom of speech, and he took advantage of that support to argue against the oppressive policies of the Prussian government as well. Müller also wrote Die Winterreise during his first year of marriage, sending it to the publisher in January 1822. In the years 1822 to 1824, Müller composed new poems (including additional poems for Die Winterreise) for the second volume of Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten (1824) as well as his poems for the Greeks, and he increased his production of critical writings substantially—partly to pay for increased expenses from his growing family and partly from an increase in requests from his publisher. In 1825, in addition to his usual work as editor, critic, and poet, Müller undertook the writing of a prose novella Die Dreizehnte, which was published a year later. Also in 1826 Müller published a second edition of Siebenundsiebzig Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten, and began his second novella Debora (1828). In 1827 Müller published his last volume of poetry Lyrische Reisen und epigrammatische Spaziergänge (1827; Lyric Journeys and Epigrammatical Walks). This volume contains many lyric cycles about places that Müller visited on his vacations in the years 1824 to 1826. Among the more significant cycles in this volume were Frühlingskranz aus dem Plauenschen Grunde, which emerged from his trip to Dresden in 1824, and Muscheln von der Insel Rügen, inspired by his trip to the island of Rügen in the Baltic in 1825. In March of 1826 Müller contracted whooping cough, and did not recover completely until late August of the same year. In 1827, in addition to work on Debora and the above-mentioned volume of poetry, Müller wrote various articles for seven journals and newspapers, submitted sixty-five articles for publication in the Konversationslexikon, and continued his work as an editor. However, Müller's health began to decline. He became ill in July of 1827, and his health was poor during his vacation—an almost two-month trip down the Rhine. Five days after his return home, Müller died of a heart attack in his sleep, just before his thirty-third birthday. Although his untimely death was surrounded by rumors of suicide or murder—rumors that have persisted over the years—no convincing evidence has appeared, and some scholars believe that Müller may have suffered from consumption and weakness brought on by exposure to whooping cough.
Müller's major works include Doktor Faustus: Tragödie von Christoph Marlowe, the series of Lieder der Greichen, Siebenundsiebzig Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten, and Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten. (The last two works are often referred to as Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten I and II.) Müller's translation, Doktor Faustus: Tragödie von Christoph Marlowe, was probably the work that acquainted Johann Wolfgang von Goethe with Marlowe's tragedy, and so prepared the way for Goethe's famous Faust. Müller's series of Lieder der Griechen rallied many Europeans around the cause of freedom for the Greeks from the domination of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. The series also served as a means for advocating freedom of speech in Germany, which was incompatible with the censorship practiced by the Prussian government. Müller's two volumes of Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten had a marked influence on the poetry of Heinrich Heine, especially the Lyrische Intermezzo and Die Nordsee. The poems are marked by simplicity, often center around the theme of wandering, and use characters from everyday life such as millers, hunters, shepherds, sailors, and maidens. From Müller's two collections, two cycles—Die schöne Müllerin and Die Winterreise—were put to music by Schubert, who preserved the lyrics mostly unchanged in Die schöne Müllerin, D. 795 and Die Winterreise, D. 911. Die schöne Müllerin tells the story of a miller boy who follows a brook to a mill and falls in love with the miller's daughter who, in turn, is in love with a local huntsman. The miller boy wanders in despair until he finds relief in death in the brook. Die Winterreise tells the similar story of a young musician rejected by his beloved in favor of someone more wealthy. The protagonist wanders alone in despair through the winter, first dreaming of relief, then shaking off such self-deception, and finally following a hurdy-gurdy man who reconnects the young musician to the real world.
Müller's poetry was highly regarded in his own day. His Lieder der Griechen were esteemed in the nineteenth-century, both for their impassioned support of the Greek struggle for independence and for their political value in advocating freedom of speech. Because of these poems, Müller became known as the German Lord Byron. Müller's two volumes of Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten were praised by Heinrich Heine for the purity, simplicity, and clarity of their rhythm, form, and meter, which gave to Müller's work the quality of "immediacy," and for freedom from the intellectual contrivance found in folksongs. These same qualities admired by Heine seem to have appealed to Schubert, who, it is reputed, came across Müller's poems unexpectedly while waiting for an appointment and, realizing their worth, immediately ran home with the book neither asking its owner's permission nor keeping his appointement. Furthermore, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow considered several of Müller's poems worthy of translation, and Alfred, Lord Tennyson probably used Die schöne Müllerin and Die Winterreise as models for "The Window." However, Müller's work has been judged second-rate by others in both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, his poetry often described as naïve, pathetic, shallow, and full of conventional imagery and clichés. Some scholars, though, have acknowledged that despite these apparently negative elements in his poetry, Müller was able to use his poems purposefully for his own ends. For example, Alan P. Cottrell has argued that one can find depth and sensitivity under the surface of conventionality in Müller's poems; and Susan Youens has claimed that Müller's naiveté is a deception that conceals quite complex writing. The more recent critics acknowledge that the majority of scholars now view Müller's poetry worthy of serious consideration.
Doktor Faustus: Tragödie von Christoph Marlowe [translator] (play) 1818
Rom, Römer und Römerinnen [Rome, Roman Men, and Roman Women] (letters) 1820
Die schöne Müllerin [The Pretty Maid of the Mill] (poetry) 1820
*Siebenundsiebzig Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten [Seventy-Seven Poems from the Posthumous Papers of a Traveling French Horn Player] (poetry) 1820; second edition, 1826
Lieder der Griechen [Songs of the Greeks] 2 vols, (poetry) 1821
Die Winterreise [The Winter Journey] (poetry) 1822
Neue Lieder der Griechen [New Songs of the Greeks] 2 vols. (poetry) 1823
**Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten [Poems from the Posthumous Papers of a Traveling French Horn Player] (poetry) 1824
Neueste Lieder der Griechen [The Most Recent Songs of the Greeks] (poetry) 1824
Missolunghi (poetry) 1825
Die Dreizehnte [The Thirteenth] (novella) 1826
Muscheln von der Insel Rügen [Seashells from the Island of Rügen] (poetry) 1826
Debora (novella) 1828
†Lyrische Reisen und epigrammatische...
(The entire section is 263 words.)
SOURCE: "The Poetry of Wilhelm Müller," Methodist Review LXXVII, 5th ser., Vol. XI, July, 1895, pp. 581-94.
[In the following essay, Hatfield praises Müller both for pioneering the lyric cycle form that presents its progress of action through a loosely-knit sequence of poems, and for the excellent metrical qualities, descriptiveness, characterization, and range of feeling found in various poems of Müller's cycles.]
Those who cherish Miller's poetry, and believe that it is destined to find more and more a place in the hearts of men, have seen with pleasure the many tributes of appreciation which have recently been paid him in all parts of Germany and in Greece, inconnection with the hundredth anniversary of his birth—the seventh of last October. Were it not for certain assignable causes, it would seem beyond belief that he is so nearly unknown among English-speaking people. Our popular encyclopedias, even the Britannica, do not mention him, and the hospitable columns of the various volumes of Poole's Index have no entry under his name. Longfellow, with that fine poetic insight which did him honor, early recognized the value of Müller's lyrical gifts. In the second book of Hyperion he characterizes him with just appreciation,1 and his translations of two of Müller's lyrics, under the titles "Whither?" and "The Bird and the Ship," have appeared in his works since 1839....
(The entire section is 4804 words.)
SOURCE: "Wilhelm Müller's Poetry of the Sea," Modern Language Review 18, 1923, pp. 323-34.
[In the following essay, Richardson examines the originality of Müller's Muscheln von der Insel Rügen and Lieder aus dem Meerbusen von Salerno as contributions to poetry about the sea.]
The development of sea-poetry in Germany prior to the appearance of Müller's Muscheln von der Insel Rügen (1826) and Heine's Nordsee (1826-7) has not been adequately investigated. The lists only include the most obvious names; P. S. Allen, for instance, mentions Brockes, F. L. Stolberg, Boie, Goethe, Tieck and Heine; and to these A. Pache adds E. von Kleist and S. Gessner1. Gessner, Kleist, Brockes and Boie may be excluded at once, for their poetry shows no true appreciation of the sea; indeed, one doubts whether three at least of them had ever seen it. Tieck's contribution to sea-poetry is one beautiful poem, Livorno, which depicts an Italian sea-scape. The inclusion of Goethe's name is justified by the two poems Glückliche Fahrt and Meeresstille, and by some fine passages in the Second Part of Faust. In fact, with the exception of Heine and Müller, F. L. Stolberg is the only poet of those who have been mentioned who shows a genuine understanding for the sea. Ossianic effects take the place of local colouring and render his presentation unrealistic, but he...
(The entire section is 5023 words.)
SOURCE: "The Flowering of the Narrative Cycle: Uhland, Wilhelm Müller, Heine," in The Lyric Cycle in German Literature, King's Crown Press, 1946, pp. 78-113.
[In the following excerpt, Mustard contends that most of Müller's cycles lack unity and cohesion because the individual poems were not written with a specific cycle structure in mind but rather were only incorporated into a given cycle after composition.]
Wilhelm Müller is one of the few poets whose entire lyric production tends to be cyclic. All the poems which Müller himself published in his collections are arranged in groups with descriptive titles, such as Reiselieder, Ländliche Lieder, Lieder aus dem Meerbusen von Salerno, Ständchen in Ritornellen aus Albano, etc.14 Not all of these groups can be called true cycles, but the cyclic tendency is apparent even in those which are the most diffuse.
Among his earliest cycles is Wanderlieder eines rheinischen Handwerksburschen,15 inspired, as Müller himself intimated, by Uhland's example. The form is very similar to that of Uhland's "Wanderlieder." The narrative base is the same; the boy bids his sweetheart farewell and sets off on his journey, he finds it almost unbearable to be separated from her, he is lonely and wishes she might be with him, with a chance acquaintance in an inn he drinks a toast to her, he bids the moonlight bring her a...
(The entire section is 4180 words.)
SOURCE: "Die schöne Müllerin," in Wilhelm Müller's Lyrical Song-Cycles: Interpretations and Texts, The University of North Carolina Press, 1970, pp. 8-34.
[In the following excerpt, Cottrell examines the themes and images found in Die schöne Müllerin [The Pretty Maid of the Mill], showing how Millier uniquely fashioned the German folk song tradition to portray his own sense of the meaning of life and death as a process toward self-knowledge.]
The final version of the song-cycle Die schöne Müllerin, published in 1820, consists of twenty-three poems which are framed by a prologue and an epilogue. This frame will not concern us here. The cycle represents the last stage in a long development, the details of which have been described by Bruno Hake.1 The opera of Paesiello La Molinaria (1788), which had appeared on the German stage as Die schöne Müllerin, provided the source from which a group of Müller's friends drew the thematic material for a parlor operetta (Liederspiel) which they performed in Berlin in 1816-1817, with Müller in the role of the miller's boy. Upon the suggestion of Ludwig Berger, who in 1818 had set ten of the songs (five of them Müller's) to music, Müller undertook to arrange his poems in the form of a song-cycle. This process resulted in the final version, published in 1820 in the collection Sieben und siebzig Gedichte...
(The entire section is 10014 words.)
SOURCE: "The Poet," in Wilhelm Müller: The Poet of the Schubert Song Cycles:His Life and Works, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1981, pp. 35-69.
[In the following excerpt, Baumann considers the metrical variations, lyric cycles, use of roles, and affinity to the German folk song of Müller's poetry.]
Ich kann weder spielen noch singen und wenn ich dichte, so sing' ich doch und spiele auch. Wenn ich die Weisen von mir geben könnte, so würden meine Lieder besser gefallen, als jetzt. Aber, getrost, es kann sich ja eine gleichgestimmte Seele finden, die die Weise aus den Worten heraushorcht und sie mir zurückgiebt.1
Although Müller was active in several fields of literary endeavor, it is as the poet of simple lyrics in the folksong style that he is most often remembered. As early as 1821 a critic in Literarisches Konversationsblatt describes Müller as an unusually talented poet. (" … der so hold im Scherz, so süss in dvher Wehmut, so reich in der Liebe, so leicht und tkiihn im Aufschwunge ist, den die kommenden Zeiten lieben werden wie die jetzige Zeit, weil er echt volkstümlich ist, was so wenige zu sein verstehen.")2 The anonymous critic was correct; the popularity of Müller's poetry in the folk-song style did outlast the poet's lifetime.
Many of his poems seem old-fashioned and naïve today....
(The entire section is 2864 words.)
SOURCE: "Die Winterreise: The Secret of the Cycle's Appeal," Mosaic XV, No. 1, Winter, 1982, pp. 41-52.
[In the following essay, Baumann and Luetgert analyze Die Winterreise in terms of the "stages of dying" outlined in the book entitled Death and Dying by Elizabeth Kübler-Ross."]
Many musicologists consider Franz Schubert's Die Winterreise, a song cycle based on the lyrics of Wilhelm Müller, to be the greatest masterpiece of its genre. The composition is so familiar that Thomas Mann incorporated a song from it ("Der Lindenbaum" also known as "Am Brunnen vor dem Tore") as a musical reference in the closing scenes of his Magic Mountain (1924). Russian Nobel Prize winner Alexander Solzhenitsyn used the opening song ("Gute Nacht") as a kind of musical leitmotif in his 1960 drama Candle in the Wind. In each of these twentieth-century works, the protagonist dies while singing an emotional song from this nineteenth-century song cycle.
Die Winterreise has always held a special fascination for the performer and listener alike. Famous artists such as Hermann Prey and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau occasionally perform the cycle as the entire program on a solo recital and have competed for the distinction of having recorded its "definitive" interpretation. Singers frequently refer to the performance of Die Winterreise as the culmination...
(The entire section is 5032 words.)
SOURCE: "The Texts of Winterreise," in Retracing a Winter's Journey: Schubert's Winterreise, Cornell University Press, 1991, pp. 50-72.
[In the following excerpt, Youens interprets Die Winterreise in terms of the quest for self-knowledge, the denial of a comforting transcendant reality or illusion, and the tenacity of life in spite of intense grief and depression over the loss of a loved one.]
Marie von Pratobevera, later the sister-in-law of Schubert's first biographer, Heinrich Kreißle von Hellborn, wrote in a letter shortly after the publication of Winterreise, Part I, that the cycle consisted of "laments over a sweetheart's unfaithfulness … a companion-piece to the 'Maid of the Mill' songs, by the same poet and nearly identical in content."1 Part II had not yet appeared, and she could not have known what would follow after the twelfth song, but later writers who knew the entire work either saw little more than dated love laments or else fell into a trap arising from Müller's original transformation of a conventional subject. The poet adopts as his own a frequent Romantic theme-a journey by an isolated, alienated protagonist-with a tragic finale in madness or death, but the discrepancies from convention compel us to take a closer look in order properly to account for Müller's permutations. This sustained "outcry of scorched sensibility"2 goes far beyond grief...
(The entire section is 6506 words.)
SOURCE: "'Strange Old Man': Thoughts on the Closing Lines of Winterreise," in German Life and Letters 45, No. 2, April, 1992, pp. 109-113.
[In the following excerpt on "Der Leiermann"—the final poem in Die Winterreise-Smeed explains the word "wunderlich" as an epithet describing the unreasonably eccentric state of mind and actions of both the hurdy-gurdy man and the Wanderer.]
The poetry of Winterreise has for many years now been treated seriously and with respect as a record of ill-fated love, melancholia, cosmic despair or even in cipient schizophrenia;1 the time is past when the author, Wilhelm Müller, could be brushed aside as a minor talent whose chief merit is to have provided Schubert with song texts. The final poem, 'Der Leiermann', has been singled out for particular attention. The old hurdy-gurdy man stands outside the village in the freezing cold, alone save for the snarling dogs, his begging-plate empty of coins. The Wanderer suggests that they join up, implying that his songs of disappointed love and disillusionment will find a fitting accompaniment in the old man's forlorn music:
Drüben hinterm Dorfe steht ein Leiermann,
Und mit starren Fingem dreht er, was er kann.
Barfuβ auf dem Else wankt er hin und her,
Und sein kleiner Teller bleibt ihm immer leer.
Keiner mag ihn hören,...
(The entire section is 1833 words.)
Baumann, Cecilia C. Wilhelm Müller: The Poet of the Schubert Song Cycles: His Life and Works. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1981, 191 p.
Devotes the first chapter to a lengthy biographical sketch of Müller.
Brown, Maurice J. E. Schubert: A Critical Biography. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1958, 414 p.
Includes biographical and critical passages on Müller and his poetry.
Hatfield, James Taft. "Unpublished Letters of Wilhelm Müller." American Journal of Philology XXIV, No. 2 (April, May, June 1903): 121-48.
Presents fifteen previously undiscovered and unpublished letters in German by Müller with brief introductory or following comments in English by Hatfield.
Allen, Philip Schuyler. Wilhelm Müller and the German Volkslied. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1899, 159p. Reprinted in Journal of English and Germanic Philology, II (1898-99): 283-322; III, No. 1 (1901): 35-91; and III, No. 4 (1901): 431-91.
Assesses the extent of the influence of the German folk songs on Müller's lyrics, especially in terms of diction and the portrayal of a sense of nature....
(The entire section is 491 words.)