The Poem

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

Many of the poems Robert Creeley wrote in the 1950’s concerned some intense moment or passage in a man/woman, often husband/wife, relationship. Woman appears in several guises in these poems—sometimes, as here, in two (at least) in the same poem. The reader finds the woman who is in possession, so to speak, possibly the wife, asleep. The man, her lover, perhaps her husband, tosses and turns, unable to rid his mind of its preoccupations, particularly with another woman, to whom he has also apparently made love, and who is even now not far off. Finally, he complains of his anguish out loud, and this stirs the wife figure beside him into semiconsciousness—she utters a muffled sound and puts her hand on his back.

Transformed by this touch of the real, the man appears to calm down and to view the woman he is with in a light different from that in which he viewed her at the outset. Then, she was “a flat, sleeping thing”—somewhat insubstantial to him, unholdable, removed. This remove stirs the embers of his yearning for the other woman, the one “on the roof”—literally so, perhaps, a houseguest in the poet’s Mediterranean villa— metaphorically so, surely, since she is “on his mind.” His longing increases until he groans audibly, which causes his companion to hug him. This in turn changes his feelings toward her and toward the other woman, which makes him think that he has uttered this poem “wrongly,” because he had been misrepresenting his companion to himself.

One must allow that the woman on the roof could be solely a figment of the poet’s imagination, an ideal figure of compliant passion who is liable to spring into (mental) life whenever her “host” feels lonely. The “whip” of the title might be something with which the poet is beaten, or with which he beats himself—guilt, remorse, desire—but it also describes the way the phrases whip around as the poem abruptly shifts emotional direction. “Whip” can also have the sense of “spur”: to urge someone onward. Here, the chain of events whips the poet toward a conclusion.

The Whip Forms and Devices

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

It was Creeley’s practice at this time to use old measures in new ways, to use, as here, the couplet as a frame for free verse. From an outset at which the first two lines have an identical number of syllables, the poem proceeds through variations upon this measure, ringing telling changes upon the count initially established. For example, in the second stanza or couplet, “sleeping thing. She was,” with its five syllables and three or four stresses, is played against the next line, “very white,” to render the latter slower, more emphatic. The ear, without necessarily becoming conscious of the fact, allots a certain duration to each successive line, which is based upon the units of time (sound) that immediately precede it. Expecting four beats, five syllables, one tends to draw out a shorter line, giving more duration to fewer syllables. In such ways, meanings arise throughout the poem from various speedings-up and slowings-down, which, together with the hesitations of the end-stopped lines—always end-stopped by Creeley in reading—provide an impression of language under the pressures of actual speech, of a thinking that is feeling/sensing its way through a difficult territory or tangle of human predicament, seeking some enlightenment by way of surcease from troubling thoughts.

Rhyme also comes and goes, surfaces and submerges, throughout “The Whip.” While it is seldom found at the line ends, it crops up in several telling series: bed, feather, very, addressed, myself,...

(The entire section is 611 words.)

The Whip Bibliography

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

Allen, Donald, ed. Contexts of Poetry: Interviews with Robert Creeley, 1961-1971. Bolinas, Calif.: Four Seasons, 1973.

Clark, Tom. Robert Creeley and the Genius of the American Commonplace. New York: New Directions, 1993.

Edelberg, Cynthia. Robert Creeley’s Poetry: A Critical Introduction. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1978.

Faas, Ekbert, and Maria Trombaco. Robert Creeley: A Biography. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2001.

Ford, Arthur. Robert Creeley. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1978.

Foster, Edward Halsey. Understanding the Black Mountain Poets. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.

Fox, Willard. Robert Creeley, Edward Dorn, and Robert Duncan: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1989.

Oberg, Arthur. Modern American Lyric: Lowell, Berryman, Creeley, and Plath. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1977.

Rifkin, Libbie. Career Moves: Olson, Creeley, Zukofsky, Berrigan, and the American Avant-Garde. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.

Terrell, Carroll, ed. Robert Creeley: The Poet’s Workshop. Orono, Maine: National Poetry Foundation, 1984.

Wilson, John, ed. Robert Creeley’s Life and Work: A Sense of Increment. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.