(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

“When in Early Summer” was first published in Sternverdunkelung. It is available in English in the book The Seeker, and Other Poems. Sachs wanted to omit the poem from the 1961 edition of her collected poetry but was persuaded by the editor, Enzensberger, to include it. The poem contains some of her most vivid images and is one of Sachs’s best-known works in Germany.

The sixteen-line poem has five stanzas. Of these, the first three form a progression and the last two commentary. The first stanza, with five lines, describes a night in early summer when nature seems especially alive and humans seem especially attuned to its reassuring messages. All is as it should be, calm and beautiful. “The moon sends out secret signs,” the “scent of heaven” streams from the lilies, and, as the crickets sing, one can hear the “earth turning and the language of spirits set free.”

It being night, the poet’s thoughts move easily from the outer world to the inner world. In the two lines of the second stanza, in dreams, she moves into the mystical state and envisions things beyond the realm of the ordinary. The first image is one of entry into a higher form of being: “fish fly in the air.” This is consistent with the ecstatic experience of the summer night. The second image contains a downward motion, “a forest takes firm root in the floor of the room,” and indicates that in mystical experience transcendence is always...

(The entire section is 408 words.)

When in Early Summer Bibliography

(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Alexander, Edward. The Resonance of Dust: Essays on Holocaust Literature and Jewish Fate. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1979.

Bahr, Ehrhard. “Flight and Metamorphosis: Nelly Sachs as a Poet of Exile.” In Exile: The Writer’s Experience, edited by John M. Spalek and Robert F. Bell. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

Bower, Kathrin M. Ethics and Remembrance in the Poetry of Nelly Sachs and Rose Ausländer. Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, 2000.

Garloff, Katja. Words from Abroad: Trauma and Displacement in Postwar German Jewish Writers. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2005.

Hook, Elizabeth Snyder. “Between Fatherland and the Holy Land: Israel as Refuge and Reminder in the Poetry of Nelly Sachs and Else Lasker-Schüler.” In “A Land Flowing with Milk and Honey”: Visions of Israel from Biblical to Modern Times, edited by Leonard J. Greenspoon and Ronald A. Simkins. Omaha, Neb.: Creighton University Press, 2001.

Langer, Lawrence L. Versions of Survival: The Holocaust and the Human Spirit. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982.

Rosenfeld, Alvin. “Poetics of Expiration: Reflections on Holocaust Poetry.” The American Poetry Review 7 (November/December, 1978): 39-42.