Une Saison en enfer
Une Saison en enfer
The following entry presents criticism of Rimbaud's prose poem Une Saison en enfer (1873). For information on Rimbaud's complete career, see NCLC, Volumes 4 and 35.
In both style and substance, Une Saison en enfer (A Season in Hell) is considered a revolutionary work. Unlike earlier authors of prose poems, Rimbaud shunned conventional description, straightforward narrative, and didactic purpose. Une Saison represents a revolt against the naturalism, precision, and objectivity of the Parnassians, who dominated French poetry in the 1860s and 1870s. Its innovative reliance on suggestion and evocation rather than concrete depiction heralds the inception of the Symbolist movement, whose adherents idolized Rimbaud. In basic form, Une Saison is a unique confessional work in which the poet describes a harrowing emotional and spiritual struggle. Though the poem has been subject to widely divergent interpretations, most recent commentators regard it as both a sardonic account of Rimbaud's beliefs and aspirations, and a moving exploration of universal hopes and desires.
Rimbaud was born on October 20, 1854, in Charleville, a town in northeastern France not far from the Belgian border. He was eighteen years old when he wrote Une Saison, and his literary career—inaugurated when he was fifteen—was nearly over. He began the work in April 1873, and composed most of it in the seclusion of his mother's farmhouse in Roche, near Charleville; however, he may have written parts of it in London and Brussels, where he spent brief periods in May and July with the poet Paul Verlaine. Rimbaud and Verlaine had become lovers in 1871, but their two-year affair was marked by frequent quarrels and separations. Their relationship came to a dramatic close in Brussels on July 10, 1873, when Verlaine—outraged that Rimbaud intended to leave him once again—shot him in the wrist. After recuperating in a Brussels hospital for a week, Rimbaud returned to his mother's farm and completed Une Saison before the month was over. The work was published in November, and Rimbaud took a few copies to Paris, seeking critical acclaim. Disappointed at the lack of interest in his latest creation, Rimbaud left France and spent much of 1874 in England. In January 1875 he began the
nomadic career that would occupy the remainder of his life. After traveling throughout Europe, he journeyed to Africa in 1880. He spent the following years chiefly in Abyssinia (modern-day Ethiopia) where he became a commercial trader, an explorer, and an arms dealer. He died in Marseilles on November 10, 1891.
The composition dates and early publication history of Une Saison en enfer have been well documented by modern scholars. In a letter to his friend Ernest Delahaye, dated May of 1873 and written from Roche, Rimbaud described his progress on a prose poem that he had provisionally titled "Livre païen" ("Pagan Book") or "Livre nègre" ("Negro Book"). After completing the work in July of 1873, Rimbaud took the manuscript to a printer in Brussels, where it was published in November. His sister Isabelle fostered the story that Rimbaud was so discouraged by the lack of critical enthusiasm for Une Saison that he burned the entire edition, and for decades it was generally believed that there were only a few copies in existence. However, in 1901 a Belgian bibliophile named Losseau discovered approximately five hundred copies of the book in the attics of the Brussels printer; apparently they were left in storage because Rimbaud had been unable to pay for them. Losseau shocked the literary world when, in 1915, he revealed his discovery.
Form and Content
Une Saison en enfer is framed as a literary, emotional, and spiritual autobiography. In the course of the work, Rimbaud adopted a series of narrative personas, contended with concrete and abstract protagonists, and addressed a variety of audiences. The prevailing rhetorical style follows a pattern of statement—endorsement of a proposed solution, a philosophical premise, or a moral value—followed by an antithetical or counterstatement; this, in turn, is succeeded by a rejection or dismissal of both positions. Verb tenses frequently switch from past to present, and the poetic language alternates between formal and colloquial discourse.
Commentators generally view Une Saison as comprising nine sections, although some regard the fourth and fifth sections—"Délires I" and "Délires II"—as a single entity. The first section, untitled, is usually referred to as the prologue or preface; here the speaker reminisces about his former life and his rebellions against authority, and sets the stage for the poem's ambiguous treatment of good and evil. In the second part, "Mauvais Sang" ("Bad Blood"), the poet explores his pre-Christian, Gallic origins and emphasizes his alienation from modern civilization. "Nuit de l'enfer" ("Night of Hell") is a tortured account of hallucinations, spiritual combat, and damnation, in which the narrator parodies his attempts to become a semi-divine being and change the world. "Délires I" ("Deliriums I")—subtitled "Vierge folle—l'Époux infernal" ("Foolish Virgin—The Infernal Bridegroom")—is generally agreed to be an ironic presentation of the failed relationship between Verlaine and Rimbaud, although several critics have asserted that the two personas also represent the feminine and masculine aspects of the author's temperament. "Délires II"—subtitled "Alchimie du verbe" ("Alchemy of the Word")—evokes Rimbaud's failed literary experiment to find, through the role of voyant or seer, a new mode of poetic expression; it includes seven of the poems he wrote the previous year, in slightly altered form. "L'Impossible" ("The Impossible") is highly intense, abstract, and metaphysical; here the author bitterly denounces nineteenth-century Western civilization, mourns the loss of purity, and acknowledges that his dreams of escape are futile. "L'Éclair" ("The Flash [of Lightning or Insight]") is alternately hopeful and mocking, remorseful and defiant, as it considers alternatives to traditional modes of religion, art, and cultural institutions. In "Matin" ("Morning"), the narrator reflects on his past even as he looks to the future; he appears to accept, with resignation, the necessity of adapting to life's realities. In the final section, "Adieu" ("Farewell"), the speaker advances the possibility of finding a new way of achieving truth and then expressing it in innovative language; the narrator mocks this effort, too, and points out that the search will be a lonely venture.
Perhaps because it is a richly complex work, there is no critical consensus regarding the principal motifs in Une Saison en enfer. Some critics emphasize the theme of evil, others focus on the topic of alienation, and still others stress the significance of sin and redemption in the poem. Many scholars have called attention to the narrator's struggle to reconcile the ideals of Christianity with the hypocrisy and corruption of Western civilization. The poem presents a myriad of dualities or conflicting themes, most of which have their origin in the Christian opposition of body and spirit. The attempt to resolve these dualities—to achieve salvation through some yet unknown means—is diffused throughout the work. The motif of damnation occurs repeatedly and is variously met with hope, despair, mockery, and resignation. The poem's title itself suggests the theme of time and the different stages of life, including innocence as well as corruption. Although the issue of literary aspirations is dealt with most extensively in "Délires II," it appears frequently throughout the poem, as the narrator alternately speaks with pride of his earlier verses and denigrates these lyrics as failures. Whether "Adieu" presents the poet as vowing never to write again, resigned to his role as an ordinary man, or still hopeful that he can find a way to express the ineffable and achieve personal salvation, is unclear. Alluding to the essential ambiguities of Une Saison en enfer, C. W. Hackett has asserted that, like most of Rimbaud's work, it is "both 'closed' and 'open,' final and provisional, an end and a beginning."
The earliest critical appraisals of Une Saison en enfer almost invariably disparaged the poem as the confession of a debauched scoundrel. In the 1890s, however, commentators began to perceive in it a deep spirituality. Late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century critics generally believed the myth that Rimbaud personally destroyed every copy of the poem, and they were unaware of the likelihood that he continued working on his other major prose poem, the Illuminations, after completing this work. Thus they viewed Une Saison as Rimbaud's final, emphatic farewell to literature. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, commentators frequently adopted a biographical approach to the poem, tracing—or hypothesizing—connections between the text and Rimbaud's life. This approach yielded a variety of judgments, as various critics concluded that Une Saison reveals its author as a mystic and a blasphemer, an atheist and a devout Catholic, a bourgeois and a communist. To some degree, explications of the poem's biographical resonances are still being proposed; in the 1960s, for example, Enid Starkie asserted that the work demonstrates the nexus between Rimbaud's poetic doctrines and his religious beliefs, and that he was chiefly concerned with the issues of sin, his personal belief in God, and his compromised principles. Similarly interested in the link between art and religion in Une Saison, W. M. Frohock proposed that while the poem displays Rimbaud's rejection of both Catholicism and the poetry he wrote before 1873, it also reveals his determination to continue searching for a new path to wisdom and a new way of expressing the realities of human existence. The 1970s marked the beginning of a movement away from the critical preoccupation with the link between Rimbaud's life and his poetry. In 1979, C. Chadwick adopted a more formal approach to Une Saison, comparing it with Rimbaud's other work and focusing on such issues as structure, tone, and vocabulary. Soon thereafter C. A. Hackett continued this trend, emphasizing Rimbaud's artistry and the unique dramatic technique he devised for Une Saison. In 1987 Jonathan Monroe evaluated the poem's formal and thematic structure, particularly its fragmented narrative and its disjointed presentation of time and space. And in the early 1990s, James Lawler analyzed the self-dramatizing nature of Une Saison, calling attention to its pervasive emotional ambiguities. Common strains running through recent criticism have included a focus on Rimbaud's dramatic technique and on his juxtaposition of pagan and Christian thought, together with forceful assertions about the universal ramifications of this acutely personal narrative.
SOURCE: "Une Saison en enfer," in Arthur Rimbaud, New Directions, 1961, pp. 287-313.
[In the following excerpt from her book-length treatment of Rimbaud's life and works, Starkie identifies three principal themes in Une Saison en enfer: sin, belief in God, and conformity to the realities of human existence. She asserts that Une Saison reveals Rimbaud's inability either to resolve the conflict between good and evil, trade personal freedom for the love of God, or compromise his idealistic principles.]
With Le Bateau Ivre, Mémoire and certain poems from Illuminations, Une Saison en Enfer ranks as Rimbaud's greatest work. It contains some very lovely passages of writing which are prose poems in themselves, and could be printed as such, taken from their context.
In August 1873, after many weeks of anguish, he finished the work. We do not know how much there was still left to write when he returned wounded from Belgium at the end of July, nor how much he had written in London, nor yet how much he re-wrote of what he had already written, after his tragic experience. From the comparison of the rough draft—of which we have only two chapters—with the final version, we suspect that any changes he made must have been stylistic with a view to simplifying his vision and taking from it what was not necessary, rather than to altering the initial inspiration....
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SOURCE: "From the Far Side of Despair," in Rimbaud's Poetic Practice: Image and Theme in the Major Poems, Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 201-22.
[In the following essay, Frohock disputes the view—held by many earlier critics —that in Une Saison en enfer Rimbaud irrevocably rejected both the world around him and his literary aspirations. Frohock maintains that although Rimbaud condemned both the Christian tradition and his personal experiment with voyancy, he accepted the challenge of dealing with reality and searching for a new form of poetic expression.]
Nothing could be more natural than that our time should have made Rimbaud one of its special heroes. We have been aware of ourselves as living in—perhaps living through—an age of anxiety, and identified him as typically anxious. The heroes of our fiction have been alienated figures, and we know that Rimbaud's alienation was deep. We have honored, above all, those who have shown themselves capable of pronouncing a total refusal of the world in which we have no choice but to live, and written down Rimbaud as one of the most exemplary of such révoltés. Discussions of his work as a "poetry of revolt" have abounded, especially since the brave days of Existentialism and the publication by Albert Camus of The Rebel, and the importance of Une Saison en enfer has been ephasized, at times out of...
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SOURCE: "Une Saison en enfer," in Rimbaud, Athlone Press, 1979, pp. 112-35.
[In the following essay, Chadwick argues that Rimbaud demonstrated a much firmer sense of artistic control in the two parts of "Délires" than he did in other sections of the poem. The critic further contends that in "Délires I and II, " the principal themes of spiritual alienation, the search for a new verse form, and the impulse to reshape Western society are more fully articulated than in the preceding or following sections.]
Publication and Composition
With the exception of a few of his early poems, Une Saison en enfer is the only one of Rimbaud's works to have been published immediately after its composition. But even so, its publication, in the autumn of 1873, was accompanied by a number of complications, not the least of which is that it is not strictly correct to say that Une Saison en enfer was published; in actual fact five hundred copies were printed but they were not then offered for sale to the public. Rimbaud received his half-dozen author's copies, but all the others were left in the hands of the printers, presumably because Rimbaud was unable or unwilling to pay for them. It goes without saying that the publication of work such as Une Saison en enfer must have been undertaken at the author's expense and Rimbaud was no doubt required, as is the...
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SOURCE: "Une Saison en enfer," in Rimbaud: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 1981, pp. 85-119.
[In the essay below, Hackett emphasizes the technical artistry and universal implications of Une Saison en enfer. Discussing each section in turn, the critic examines Rimbaud's language and imagery; his rhetorical method of statement and counterstatement; his use of certain structural devices to achieve coherence; and his ambiguous treatment of the motifs of time, salvation, the search for truth, and the essential duality of body and spirit.]
Poésies, Derniers vers or Vers nouveaux et chansons, and Illuminations are collections or groups of poems which have been arranged in a certain order, and given those titles, by various editors. Une Saison en enfer, on the other hand, is a work which, from its inception to its publication, was under Rimbaud's control. It was he who decided the order of the nine sections, gave them their titles, dated the work, found a publisher in Brussels, corrected the proofs and saw it through the press. As well as being his only sustained and completed work—his only œuvre—Une Saison en enfer is the work which Rimbaud himself considered, perhaps for personal reasons, of supreme importance. Some of the sections were written before, and some after the quarrel in Brussels in which Verlaine shot and wounded him, an...
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SOURCE: "Conclusion," in Rimbaud's Theatre of the Self, Harvard University Press, 1992, pp. 201-19.
[In the following essay, Lawler examines the self-reflexive nature of Une Saison en enfer, suggesting that like all Rimbaud's work, its essential purpose is dramatic rather than descriptive or didactic. The critic also points out the influence of Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal on Rimbaud's depiction of a soul in anguish—though he argues that unlike Les Fleurs, Une Saison ultimately expresses belief in the possibility of deliverance.]
"Bah! faisons toutes les grimaces imaginables" 'So what! let us make all conceivable grimaces'.1 Rimbaud projected himself in a series of roles that allowed him to act out a multiple relationship with the world. Self-reflexive images, warring affections, refashioned myths: his poetry is complex representation.
The element of play was no doubt central to such a venture as it had been for the schoolboy who shone by his Latin hexameters and who later pastiched the Romantics and Parnassians. What could give more pleasure than to write these variations in which he was visible and invisible like a magician: "Ecoutez … J'ai tous les talents!—Il n'y a personne ici et il y a quelqu'un … Je suis caché et je ne le suis pas" 'Listen! … I have all talents! There is no one here and there is someone … I am hidden and not...
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Bloom, Harold, ed. Arthur Rimbaud. New York: Chelsea House, 1988, 240 p.
A collection of late twentieth-century essays on Rimbaud and his writings, reprinted from various books and periodicals.
Bonnefoy, Yves. "A Season in Hell" In Rimbaud, trans. Paul Schmidt, pp. 82-105. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
Interprets Une Saison en enfer as a tortured account of Rimbaud's moral and spiritual alienation. Bonnefoy declares that as it swings between nihilism and "aspirations toward the sacred," the poem depicts its author's struggle to resolve the contradictions of human existence.
Cohn, Robert Greer. "Une Saison en enfer." In The Poetry of Rimbaud, pp. 401-38. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
Objects to extravagant praise of Rimbaud and Une Saison en enfer. Although Cohn describes some sections of the poem as masterful, he contends that it lacks structural coherence and is obsessively self-absorbed. Also includes detailed commentary on important passages in each of the poem's nine sections. Cohn's explication of these lines is contained in pp. 413-38 of the chapter.
Fowlie, Wallace. "Une Saison en enfer." In Rimbaud, pp. 87-96. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,...
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