(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

“Tristia,” the title poem of a book published in 1922, reflects the mood of a person leaving his home, city, and possibly, country. The four-stanza poem opens with Mandelstam’s statement that he has learned the “science of parting.” The parting is accompanied by the weeping of women after a long night’s vigil, by the rooster’s crow, and by red eyes gazing into the distance. The women’s lament mingles with the Muses’ song. Many of these details closely follow Ovid’s elegy of the same title.

In stanza 2, the parting is still accompanied by sorrow, uncertainty, and fear. The departing poet watches, like Ovid, the fire burning in the acropolis as he passes by. In the middle of the stanza, however, the poet shifts his vision somewhat and speaks of the dawn of some new light, in accordance with the rooster’s crowing, which normally heralds a new day. This clashes with the poet’s, and Ovid’s, mood of sadness at the beginning of the poem. The poet himself questions this change, using the image of an ox chewing lazily in his stall and of a rooster flapping his wings loudly on the city wall—the former expressing indifference or stoicism, and the latter the dawn of a new, vigorous day.

In stanza 3, the departing one is preoccupied with fresh memories of home, of peaceful and happy activities such as spinning at the loom, for example. He recalls a barefoot Delia—from classical mythology and from Alexander Pushkin—who flies...

(The entire section is 478 words.)

Tristia Summary

(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

Osip Mandelstam’s second collection of verses, Tristia, was published in 1922 under unusual and intriguing circumstances. The manuscript was taken to Berlin, and the poems were arranged by a fellow poet, Mikhail Kuzmin, who also gave the work its title, after one of the best poems in the collection. Mandelstam borrowed that poem’s title from Ovid’s work by the same name. Mandelstam was not satisfied, however, with the way the publication was handled. When he published the second edition in 1923, he changed the title to Vtoraia kniga (second book) and rearranged the poems. Because the collection was republished as Tristia, and because Mandelstam later referred to it as such, Tristia is now accepted as its only legitimate title. Perhaps the reason Mandelstam accepted the title was that, like Ovid, he wrote most of the Tristia poems on the shores of the Black Sea, and he brought the manuscript from there. Moreover, Mandelstam’s life, in which he was frequently on the run, mostly as an internal exile, parallels that of Ovid. His lifelong fascination with classical antiquity also identifies him with Ovid.

The forty-five mostly untitled poems in Tristia were written between 1916 and 1920. The poems mark the highest achievements in the early stage of Mandelstam’s poetic career, and they represent some of the best poems he wrote. There is no unifying subject in the collection, but several distinct themes can be discerned. What strikes the reader the most are the preponderant references to classical antiquity. The most obvious theme, already familiar from Mandelstam’s first collection, Kamen (1913; Stone, 1981), is the poet’s homage to Rome and its civilization. The theme reflects his fascination with the Mediterranean culture and with the unity between cultures that it represents. In a poem of beautiful visual images, “Venetian Life,” he uses a Renaissance painting to sing an ode to Rome, the beautiful city on the Adriatic where “jewels are heavy” and where “there is no salvation from love.” A Georgian woman who has lost her cameo resembles a beautiful Roman woman (“I’ve lost a delicate cameo”). Persephone—the Greek goddess of the afterlife and the wife of Hades, but also used by Mandelstam as a Roman goddess—is mentioned in several poems (“I am cold,” “Swallow,” “As Psyche-Life goes down to the shades”). Mandelstam expresses his greatest veneration of Rome in the short poem “Nature’s the same as Rome”:

Nature’s the same as Rome, was reflected in it.We see images of its civic mightIn the clear air, as in the sky-blue circus,In the forum of fields, the colonnades of groves.

Mandelstam asserts that nature has found its most perfect embodiment in Rome, where nature and culture are one and where “stones exist in order to build.”

While the references in Stone are mostly to Rome, in Tristia, Mandelstam dwells on ancient Greece. References to the classical world appear in many of the poems—for example, Phedre (in “No matter how I concealed them”), “the sacred mace of Heracles” (in “The Menagerie”), and the immortal roses of Kypris (in “In Petersburg we’ll meet again”). In “The Greeks planned for war,” Mandelstam sees Europe as the new Hellas, and he beseeches it to save the Acropolis and Piraeus. The long poem “The thick golden stream of honey took so long” best expresses Mandelstam’s love for ancient Greece, where the proverbial golden honey flows in the streets, “the service of Bacchus is everywhere,” and “the peaceful days roll by.” The poet ends his apotheosis with a mournful cry:

Golden fleece, where are you, golden fleece?The sea’s heavy waves roared the whole way.Abandoning the ship, its sail worn out,Odysseus returned, full with space and time.

This poem, written during World War I and the Russian Revolution, expresses Mandelstam’s yearning for more peaceful times and sunny shores. Mandelstam identifies peace, happiness, and plenitude with ancient Greece.

The poem “Tortoise” is another apotheosis of the beauty of ancient Greece. Here “blind lyrists, like bees, give us Ionic honey,” “cicadas click...

(The entire section is 1862 words.)