Transplant Surgery (Encyclopedia of Surgery)
Transplant surgery is the surgical removal of an organ(s), tissue, or blood products from a donor and surgically placing or infusing them into a recipient.
Transplant surgery is a treatment option for diseases or conditions that have not improved with other medical treatments and have led to organ failure or injury. Transplant surgery is generally reserved for people with end-stage disease who have no other options.
The decision to perform transplant surgery is based on the patient's age, general physical condition, diagnosis and stage of the disease. Transplant surgery is not recommended for patients who have liver, lung, or kidney problems; poor leg circulation; cancer; or chronic infections.
The typical cut-off age for a transplant recipient ranges from 405 years; however, a person's general health is usually a more important factor. In addition, the percentage of transplant recipients over age 50 has increased since 1996.
On average, 66 people receive transplants every day from either a living or deceased donor. In 2002, about 24,500 transplants were performed in the United...
(The entire section is 3390 words.)
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Transplant, Surgical (Encyclopedia of Science)
A surgical transplant involves removing organs or tissues from one person and replacing them with corresponding ones from another part of that person's body or from another person. The idea of surgical transplantation dates back several centuries, but it has become a practical medical approach only in the last few decades of the twentieth century. The main reason is that the body naturally rejects foreign tissue placed inside it. Only since the mid-twentieth century have doctors begun to learn more about the body's immune system and how to suppress it's natural rejection response.
The history of transplants
The idea of transplanting animal or human parts dates back for many centuries. In the sixteenth century, a transplantation technique was developed for replacing noses lost during battle or due to syphilis (an infectious disease contracted through sexual contact). The technique involved using skin from the upper inner arm and then grafting (transplanting) and shaping it onto the nose area.
During the nineteenth century, advances in surgery (like the development of antiseptic surgery to prevent infection and anesthetics to the lessen pain) increased the success rates of most surgical procedures. However, transplantation of organs failed as surgeons had no knowledge of how to "reconnect" the organ to the new body. Transplant surgery did not...
(The entire section is 1119 words.)