Translation (International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis)
There are a large number of occurrences of the verb übersetzen ("to translate") and the nounersetzung ("translation") in Freud's work, indicative of his interest in translation, although the terms had no specific conceptual value for him within the field of psychoanalysis. However, non-German readers should bear in mind the proximity in German ofersetzung and ertragung ("transference"). What psychoanalysts refer to as "transference" is, in German, also a translation, a carrying over.
Freud's interest in translation was manifest early in his career: while doing his military service he translated an essay by John Stuart Mill and, on his return from his stay at the Salpêtrière, impressed by Charcot's clinical method, he translated two of the Charcot's main works, as well as two works by Bernheim, which he felt were essential for a scientific understanding of hysteria and the use of therapeutic methods in hypnosis. For Freud the experience of translation was contemporary with his discovery of psychoanalysis as a therapeutic practice. Ernest Jones emphasized Freud's gifts as a translator (Pollak Cornillot, 1990). It should come as no surprise, therefore, to find that translation infiltrated his thought as a metaphor for a large number of psychic processes.
In his earliest writings and with the appearance of the concept of repression, translation, in its primary sense of "to bring over," became a way of picturing the transformation of those psychic contents reaching consciousness, repression being thus defined (Freud to Fliess, December 6, 1896) as a "defect of translation," an absence of conscious expression. The work of dream interpretation likewise resembles a translation of the language of the unconscious into the language of consciousness, of the remembered dream content into its hidden sense: "Interpreting a dream consists in translating the manifest content of the dream into the latent dream-thoughts, in undoing the distortion which the dream-thoughts have had to submit to from the censorship of the resistance" (1907a, p. 59). But at the same time Freud cautioned against the tendency to overestimate the importance of symbols and reduce the work of dream translation to the mere decoding of symbols, and to ignore the ideas that present themselves to the mind of the dreamer during analysis. Finding the hidden meaning was more complex than the simple transliteration of the signs of the unconscious system into the signs of the conscious one. Elsewhere (1918b ), Freud uses the term translation more generically, to designate the psychoanalyst's interpretation of a psychic phenomenon: for example, the fear of being eaten by the wolf "is translated" into the fear of being raped by the father. More recently André Green (1997/2000) has rediscovered the richness of the "hypothesis of translation" present throughout Freud's work.
MICHE POLLAK CORNILLOT
See also: Biblioteca Nueva de Madrid (Freud, S., Obras completas); France; Interpretation; Opere (writings of Sigmund Freud); Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud; Symbol.
Freud, Sigmund. (1907a). Delusions and dreams in Jensen's "Gradiva." SE, 9: 1-95.
. (1918b ). From the history of an infantile neurosis. SE, 17: 1-122.
Green, André. (2000). The chains of eros: The sexual in psychoanalysis (Luke Thurston, Trans.). London: Rebus. (Original work published 1997)
Mahony, Patrick. (1980). Toward the understanding of translation in psychoanalysis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 28, 461-473.
Mijolla, Alain de. (1991). L'édition en français des "vres" de Freud avant 1940. Autour de quelques documents nouveaux. Revue internationale d'histoire de la psychanalyse, 4, 209-270.
Pollak Cornillot, Michèle. (1990). Freud traducteur. Introductionà la traduction des vres de Freud. Doctoral dissertation, Université René-Descartes, Paris.
Amati-Mehler, Jacqueline, et al. (1993). The babel of the unconscious. Mother tongue and foreign languages in the psychoanalytic dimension. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
Translation (World of Microbiology and Immunology)
Translation is the process in which genetic information, carried by messenger RNA (mRNA), directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids, whereby the primary structure of the protein is determined by the nucleotide sequence in the mRNA. Although there are some important differences between translation in bacteria and translation in eukaryotic cells the overall process is similar. Essentially, the same type of translational control mechanisms that exist in eukaryotic cells do not exist in bacteria.
A molecule known as the ribosome is the site of the protein synthesis. The ribosome is protein bound to a second species of RNA known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Several ribosomes may attach to a single mRNA molecule, so that many polypeptide chains are synthesized from the same mRNA. The ribosome binds to a very specific region of the mRNA called the promoter region. The promoter is upstream of the sequence that will be translated into protein.
The nucleotide sequence on the mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein by adaptor molecules composed of a third type of RNA known as transfer RNAs (tRNAs). There are many different species of tRNAs, with each species binding a particular type of amino acid. In protein synthesis, the nucleotide sequence on the mRNA does not specify an amino acid directly, rather, it specifies a particular species of tRNA. Complementary tRNAs match up on the strand of mRNA every three bases and add an amino acid onto the lengthening protein chain. The three base sequence on the mRNA are known as "codons," while the complementary sequence on the tRNA are the "anti-codons."
The ribosomal RNA has two subunits, a large subunit and a small subunit. When the small subunit encounters the mRNA, the process of translation to protein begins. There are two sites in the large subunit, an "A" site, and a "P" site. The start signal for translation is the codon ATG that codes for methionine. A tRNA charged with methionine binds to the translation start signal. After the first tRNA bearing the amino acid appears in the "A" site, the ribosome shifts so that the tRNA is now in the "P" site. A new tRNA molecule corresponding to the codon of the mRNA enters the "A" site. A peptide
Bacterial ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes. In some cases, bacterial ribosomes contain less than have the total protein found in eukaryotic ribosomes. Bacteria also respond to fewer initiation factors than do eukaryotic cells.
After being released from the tRNA, some proteins may undergo post-translational modifications. They may be cleaved by a proteolytic (protein cutting) enzyme at a specific site. Alternatively, they may have some of their amino acids biochemically modified. After such modifications, the polypeptide forms into its native shape and starts acting as a functional protein in the cell.
There are four different nucleotides, A, U, G and T. If they are taken three at a time (to specify a codon, and thus, indirectly specify an amino acid), 64 codons could be specified. However, there are only 20 different amino acids. Therefore, several triplets code for the same amino acid; for example UAU and UAC both code for the amino acid tyrosine. In addition, some codons do not code for amino acids, but code for polypeptide chain initiation and termination. The genetic code is non-overlapping, i.e., the nucleotide in one codon is never part of the adjacent codon. The code also seems to be universal in all living organisms.
See also Cell cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of; Chromosomes, prokaryotic; Cytoplasm, prokaryotic; Genetic regulation of prokaryotic cells; Molecular biology and molecular genetics; Protein synthesis; Proteins and enzymes; Ribonucleic acid (RNA)