Training and Development (Encyclopedia of Business and Finance)
The field of training and development has changed significantly during the past several years, reflecting both its role and importance in achieving higher employee performance and meeting organizational goals. Today, this field has become more important because employees need to learn new skills, advance their knowledge, and meet the challenges of technology in achieving high performance.
Training has traditionally been defined as the process by which individuals change their skills, knowledge, attitudes, and/or behavior (Robbins and DeCenzo, 1998). In this context, training involves designing and supporting learning activities that result in a desired level of performance. In contrast, development typically refers to long-term growth and learning, directing attention more on what an individual may need to know or do at some future time. While training focuses more on current job duties or responsibilities, development points to future job responsibilities. However, sometimes these terms have been used interchangeably or have been denoted by the single term performance consulting, which emphasizes either the product of training and development or how individuals perform as a result of what they have learned (Robinson and Robinson, 1995).
To be effective, training and development must meet a number of goals. First, they must be focused on individual training needs but still reflect organizational goals in terms of desired or expected performance. Second, training and development must reflect learning goals or outcomes, outlining what will be accomplished by this process. Third, they must be based on sound learning principles, be perceived as important by trainees, and be conducted in a manner that maximizes learning. Last, they must be evaluated to determine effectiveness and to help guide change and improvement.
TRENDS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
A number of trends have occurred that reflect the common theme of making training more effective. Some of the most significant trends include the following:
- A greater emphasis on customized training reflects the needs of trainees, both in terms of the skills and knowledge they currently have and those that they need, along with identifying the unique learning style of each individual. By having this focus, training can better match each individual's learning goals and needs, and thus be perceived as more relevant and appropriate by the trainee.
- An increased development of personalized learning objectives relates to present or future job requirements and reflects past performance appraisal information. This information can be gained, in part, by conducting a needs assessment for each trainee and can help in designing learning activities that encompass the critical skills and content areas needed for future performance.
- A greater use of instructional technologies, such as distance learning, allows individuals to customize learning to their job situationuch as location, time, access to technology, and so forth. The use of current training technologies can greatly assist individuals in their learning, since training content and delivery can be standardized, quickly updated, and constructed so as to require learners to demonstrate the desired competencies as they engage in learning activities.
- A greater integration of training and development into the workplace links learning to job performance. Training outcomes and learning activities are linked to each individual's job requirements so that what trainees learn will be reflected in their job performance. For example, individuals who have participated in a training program on developing teamwork skills would be expected to demonstrate these skills in their future job performance.
- A greater use of action or performance plans requires trainees to develop a plan outlining how they will implement what they have learned and how they will determine whether this plan will, in fact, improve performance. The use of this process further links training to job performance; it can also be integrated with the performance appraisal process to measure changes or improvements in an individual's performance.
A MODEL FOR CREATING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
With training and development becoming more systematic, models describing the process and activities required to achieve successful training are being used more frequently to explain how training should be designed, delivered, and evaluated. One such model, as shown in Figure 1, outlines the steps that should be completed during the pre-training, training, and post-training stages. This model also presents a brief summary of each of these stages, explaining why each step should be performed carefully and accurately.
During the pre-training stage, information is gathered to help determine the need for training. An assessment is made regarding what improvements or changes an organization needs to make, along with an assessment of what trainees need to meet their performance expectations. From this information, a decision can be made regarding the training gap, for example, the difference between the performance that is desired and the performance that currently exists.
After this assessment is complete, a number of training activities can be completed, including developing training goals or outcomes, determining the appropriate learning activities and strategies, and achieving an understanding and commitment from the trainees for the program or activities. When these activities are performed effectively, the likelihood that the training will be successful is greatly enhanced.
During the final stage, post-training, a number of activities are required to follow up on the training, ensure that it is integrated into the workplace, and measure performance changes and the effectiveness of the training. Although training can be measured through several techniques, the most important and relevant measurement is one that focuses on changes in performance rather than other factors, such as trainees' satisfaction with the training or what they have learned.
IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
One current method of evaluating the impact and importance of training is to examine the potentialr realenefits to be achieved through training and development. Although not all benefits can be measured on a strict cost-benefit analysis basis, most benefits can be at least informally measured and used to determine effectiveness. The most significant direct benefits of training are the following:
- It clarifies job duties and responsibilities
- It increases an individual's job competence
- It provides the foundation for further development
- It assists in conducting an accurate performance appraisal
- It produces higher levels of performance
In addition, training may also be evaluated in terms of indirect benefits that can add additional value. These indirect benefits could include the following:
- Enhancing teamwork and team building
- Producing a strong sense of commitment to the organization
- Achieving higher levels of employee motivation
- Assisting in cross-training/job rotation
Although the impact of training can be measured in terms of individual learning and performance, another way to determine its impact is in relation to organizational growth, development, or effectiveness. As organizations have changed in recent times, there has emerged a need to study the critical elements that make organizations prosper and relate these to training and development. It is common today to view organizations in a dynamic sense, noting that they are constantly changing, renewing themselves, and in need of being reflective of current business practices. One current prospective is to view an organization as a "learning culture," reflecting its need to be constantly involved with learning how to become better and to provide significant training opportunities for employees (Senge, 1990). Accordingly, when organizations adopt this learning culture, they create a variety of training opportunities for all employees and develop performance expectations that instill in all employees the need for and value of training and development on a continual basis.
Training and development have achieved a high degree of recognition for their importance in helping individuals become better performers and assisting organizations in achieving their goals. The field has become more visible, training processes more clearly defined, and the need for training more evident as societal and technological changes have occurred.
Through designing training and development activities as described in the model presented in Figure 1, the benefits outlined in this articleoth direct and indirectan be achieved. Further, when employees learn new skills and acquire new knowledge, they increase their career potential and add extra value to their employers and others whose work is impacted by their performance.
Following a well-structured plan for designing, implementing, and evaluating training and development programs is helpful in ensuring the effectiveness of the program and achieving a return on investment. To be effective, training should reflect the following guidelines:
- It should be tied to the organization's culture and goals. The current mission and goals should guide the development of all training and development activities. Each potential training activity should be reviewed by asking: How will this help achieve the organization's mission or goals?
- It should be perceived as important by trainee. Training should be viewed as important and relevant for achieving personal success and high performance levels.
- It should be relevant to the needs of the trainees. Some form of assessing the needs of the trainees should be completed prior to training to ensure that the program and learning activities are relevant to what the trainees need to learn or do.
- It should be linked to the workplace. Once training is completed, a plan should be completed by all trainees outlining how they will integrate the training results into their job. Some type of action planefining what activities will be completed, how they will be done, and when they will be implementedshould be used.
- It should be applied but based on sound learning principles. Current learning and training theories and principles should be used as the foundation for developing and delivering training programs, but the learning activities should stress how these theories and principles can be used in daily job duties.
- It should be supported and reinforced. If training is to be implemented effectively, support should be given by the trainees' supervisor and others who have an impact on the performance of trainees. In addition, policies and performance reward systems should help to support the training efforts and recognize when performance has improved as a result of training.
DeCenzo, D. A., and Robbins, S. P. (1998). Supervision Today Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Robinson, D. G., and Robinson, J. C. (1995). Performance Consulting: Moving Beyond Training San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Senge, P. M. (1990, Fall). "The Leader's New Work: Building Learning Organizations." Sloan Management Review vol. 32(1): 1-17.
Training and Development (Encyclopedia of Small Business)
Training and development describes the formal, ongoing efforts of organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of methods and programs. In the modern workplace, these efforts have taken on a broad range of applicationsrom instruction in highly specific job skills to long-term professional development. In recent years, training and development has emerged as a formal business function, an integral element of strategy, and a recognized profession with distinct theories and methodologies. More and more companies of all sizes have embraced "continual learning" and other aspects of training and development as a means of promoting employee growth and acquiring a highly skilled work force. In fact, the quality of employees, and the continual improvement of their skills and productivity through training, are now widely recognized as vital factors in ensuring the long-term success and profitability of small businesses. "Create a corporate culture that supports continual learning," counseled Charlene Marmer Solomon in Workforce. "Employees today must have access to continual training of all types just to keep up If you don't actively stride against the momentum of skills deficiency, you lose ground. If your workers stand still, your firm will lose the competency race."
For the most part, the terms "training" and "development" are used together to describe the overall improvement and education of an organization's employees. However, while closely related, there are important differences between the terms that center around the scope of the application. In general, training programs have very specific and quantifiable goals, like operating a particular piece of machinery, understanding a specific process, or performing certain procedures with great precision. On the other hand, developmental programs concentrate on broader skills that are applicable to a wider variety of situations, such as decision making, leadership skills, and goal setting.
TRAINING IN SMALL BUSINESSES
Implementation of formal training and development programs offers several potential advantages to small businesses. For example, training helps companies to create pools of qualified replacements for employees who may leave or be promoted to positions of greater responsibility. It also helps ensure that companies will have the human resources needed to support business growth and expansion. Furthermore, training can enable a small business to make use of advanced technology and to adapt to a rapidly changing competitive environment. Finally, training can improve employees' efficiency and motivation, leading to gains in both productivity and job satisfaction. According to the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), small businesses stand to receive a variety of benefits from effective training and development of employees, including reduced turnover, a decreased need for supervision, increased efficiency, and improved employee morale. All of these benefits are likely to contribute directly to a small business's fundamental financial health and vitality
Effective training and development begins with the overall strategy and objectives of the small business. The entire training process should be planned in advance with specific company goals in mind. In developing a training strategy, it may be helpful to assess the company's customers and competitors, strengths and weaknesses, and any relevant industry or societal trends. The next step is to use this information to identify where training is needed by the organization as a whole or by individual employees. It may also be helpful to conduct an internal audit to find general areas that might benefit from training, or to complete a skills inventory to determine the types of skills employees possess and the types they may need in the future. Each different job within the company should be broken down on a task-by-task basis in order to help determine the content of the training program.
The training program should relate not only to the specific needs identified through the company and individual assessments, but also to the overall goals of the company. The objectives of the training should be clearly outlined, specifying what behaviors or skills will be affected and how they relate to the strategic mission of the company. In addition, the objectives should include several intermediate steps or milestones in order to motivate the trainees and allow the company to evaluate their progress. Since training employees is expensive, a small business needs to give careful consideration to the question of which employees to train. This decision should be based on the ability of the employee to learn the material and the likelihood that they will be motivated by the training experience. If the chosen employees fail to benefit from the training program or leave the company soon after receiving training, the small business has wasted its limited training funds.
The design of training programs is the core activity of the training and development function. In recent years, the development of training programs has evolved into a profession which utilizes systematic models, methods, and processes of instructional systems design (ISD). ISD describes the systematic design and development of instructional methods and materials to facilitate the process of training and development and ensure that training programs are necessary, valid, and effective. The instructional design process includes the collection of data on the tasks or skills to be learned or improved, the analysis of these skills and tasks, the development of methods and materials, delivery of the program, and finally the evaluation of the training's effectiveness.
Small businesses tend to use two general types of training methods, on-the-job techniques and off-the-job techniques. On-the-job training describes a variety of methods that are applied while employees are actually performing their jobs. These methods might include orientations, coaching, apprenticeships, internships, job instruction training, and job rotation. The main advantages of on-the-job techniques is that they are highly practical, and employees do not lose working time while they are learning. Off-the-job training, on the other hand, describes a number of training methods that are delivered to employees outside of the regular work environment, though often during working hours. These techniques might include lectures, conferences, case studies, role playing, simulations, film or television presentations, programmed instruction, or special study.
On-the-job training tends to be the responsibility of supervisors, human resources professionals, or more experienced co-workers. Consequently, it is important for small businesses to educate their seasoned employees in training techniques. In contrast, off-the-job tends to be handled by outside instructors or sources, such as consultants, chambers of commerce, technical and vocational schools, or continuing education programs. Although outside sources are usually better informed as to effective training techniques than company supervisors, they may have a limited knowledge of the company's products and competitive situation. In addition, the cost of some off-the-job training methods may be too high for many small businesses to afford.
Actual administration of the training program involves choosing an appropriate location, providing necessary equipment, and arranging a convenient time. Such operational details, while seemingly minor components of an overall training effort, can have a significant effect on the success of a program. In addition, the training program should be evaluated at regular intervals while it is going on. Employees' skills should be compared to the predetermined goals or milestones of the training program, and any necessary adjustments should be made immediately. This ongoing evaluation process will help ensure that the training program successfully meets its expectations.
COMMON TRAINING METHODS
While new techniques are under continuous development, several common training methods have proven highly effective. Good continuous learning and development initiatives often feature a combination of several different methods that, blended together, produce one effective training program.
ORIENTATIONS Orientation training is vital in ensuring the success of new employees. Whether the training is conducted through an employee handbook, a lecture, or a one-on-one meeting with a supervisor, newcomers should receive information on the company's history and strategic position, the key people in authority at the company, the structure of their department and how it contributes to the mission of the company, and the company's employment policies, rules, and regulations.
LECTURES A verbal method of presenting information, lectures are particularly useful in situations when the goal is to impart the same information to a large number of people at one time. Since they eliminate the need for individual training, lectures are among the most cost-effective training methods. But the lecture method does have some drawbacks. Since lectures primarily involve one-way communication, they may not provide the most interesting or effective training. In addition, it may be difficult for the trainer to gauge the level of understanding of the material within a large group.
CASE STUDY The case method is a non-directed method of study whereby students are provided with practical case reports to analyze. The case report includes a thorough description of a simulated or real-life situation. By analyzing the problems presented in the case report and developing possible solutions, students can be encouraged to think independently as opposed to relying upon the direction of an instructor. Independent case analysis can be supplemented with open discussion with a group. The main benefit of the case method is its use of real-life situations. The multiplicity of problems and possible solutions provide the student with a practical learning experience rather than a collection of abstract knowledge and theories that may be difficult to apply to practical situations.
ROLE PLAYING In role playing, students assume a role outside of themselves and play out that role within a group. A facilitator creates a scenario that is to be acted out by the participants under the guidance of the facilitator. While the situation might be contrived, the interpersonal relations are genuine. Furthermore, participants receive immediate feedback from the facilitator and the scenario itself, allowing better understanding of their own behavior. This training method is cost effective and is often applied to marketing and management training.
SIMULATIONS Games and simulations are structured competitions and operational models that emulate real-life scenarios. The benefits of games and simulations include the improvement of problem-solving and decision-making skills, a greater understanding of the organizational whole, the ability to study actual problems, and the power to capture the student's interest.
COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING Computer-based training (CBT) involves the use of computers and computer-based instructional materials as the primary medium of instruction. Computer-based training programs are designed to structure and present instructional materials and to facilitate the learning process for the student. A main benefit of CBT is that it allows employees to learn at their own pace, during convenient times. Primary uses of CBT include instruction in computer hardware, software, and operational equipment. The last is of particular importance because CBT can provide the student with a simulated experience of operating a particular piece of equipment or machinery while eliminating the risk of damage to costly equipment by a trainee or even a novice user. At the same time, the actual equipment's operational use is maximized because it need not be utilized as a training tool. The use of computer-based training enables a small business to reduce training costs while improving the effectiveness of the training. Costs are reduced through a reduction in travel, training time, amount of operational hardware, equipment damage, and instructors. Effectiveness is improved through standardization and individualization. In recent years, videodisc and CD-ROM have been successfully integrated into PC-platforms, increasing the flexibility and possibilities of CBT.
SELF-INSTRUCTION Self-instruction describes a training method in which the students assume primary responsibility for their own learning. Unlike instructor- or facilitator-led instruction, students retain a greater degree of control regarding topics, the sequence of learning, and the pace of learning. Depending on the structure of the instructional materials, students can achieve a higher degree of customized learning. Forms of self-instruction include programmed learning, individualized instruction, personalized systems of instruction, learner-controlled instruction, and correspondence study. Benefits include a strong support system, immediate feedback, and systematization.
AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING Audiovisual training methods include television, films, and videotapes. Like case studies, role playing, and simulations, they can be used to expose employees to "real world" situations in a time- and cost-effective manner. The main drawback of audiovisual training methods is that they cannot be customized for a particular audience, and they do not allow participants to ask questions or interact during the presentation of material.
TEAM-BUILDING EXERCISES Team building is the active creation and maintenance of effective work groups with similar goals and objectives. Not to be confused with the informal, ad-hoc formation and use of teams in the workplace, team building is a formal process of building work teams and formulating their objectives and goals, usually facilitated by a third-party consultant. Team building is commonly initiated to combat poor group dynamics, labor-management relations, quality, or productivity. By recognizing the problems and difficulties associated with the creation and development of work teams, team building provides a structured, guided process whose benefits include a greater ability to manage complex projects and processes, flexibility to respond to changing situations, and greater motivation among team members. Team building may include a broad range of different training methods, from outdoor immersion exercises to brainstorming sessions. The main drawback to formal team building is the cost of using outside experts and taking a group of people away from their work during the training program.
APPRENTICESHIPS AND INTERNSHIPS Apprenticeships are a form of on-the-job training in which the trainee works with a more experienced employee for a period of time, learning a group of related skills that will eventually qualify the trainee to perform a new job or function. Apprenticeships are often used in production-oriented positions. Internships are a form of apprenticeship which combine on-the-job training under a more experienced employee with classroom learning.
JOB ROTATION Another type of experience-based training is job rotation, in which employees move through a series of jobs in order to gain a broad understanding of the requirements of each. Job rotation may be particularly useful in small businesses, which may feature less role specialization than is typically seen in larger organizations.
APPLICATIONS OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
While the applications of training and development are as various as the functions and skills required by an organization, several common training applications can be distinguished, including technical training, sales training, clerical training, computer training, communications training, organizational development, career development, supervisory development, and management development.
Technical training describes a broad range of training programs varying greatly in application and difficulty. Technical training utilizes common training methods for instruction of technical concepts, factual information, and procedures, as well as technical processes and principles.
Sales training concentrates on the education and training of individuals to communicate with customers in a persuasive manner. Sales training can enhance the employee's knowledge of the organization's products, improve his or her selling skills, instill positive attitudes, and increase the employee's self-confidence. Employees are taught to distinguish the needs and wants of the customer, and to persuasively communicate the message that the company's products or services can effectively satisfy them.
Clerical training concentrates on the training of clerical and administrative support staffs, which have taken on an expanded role in recent years. With the increasing reliance on computers and computer applications, clerical training must be careful to distinguish basic skills from the ever-changing computer applications used to support these skills. Clerical training increasingly must instill improved decision-making skills in these employees as they take on expanded roles and responsibilities.
Computer training teaches the effective use of the computer and its software applications, and often must address the basic fear of technology that most employees face and identify and minimize any resistance to change that might emerge. Furthermore, computer training must anticipate and overcome the long and steep learning curves that many employees will experience. To do so, such training is usually offered in longer, uninterrupted modules to allow for greater concentration, and structured training is supplemented by hands-on practice. This area of training is commonly cited as vital to the fortunes of most companies, large and small, operating in today's technologically advanced economy.
Communications training concentrates on the improvement of interpersonal communication skills, including writing, oral presentation, listening, and reading. In order to be successful, any form of communications training should be focused on the basic improvement of skills and not just on stylistic considerations. Furthermore, the training should serve to build on present skills rather than rebuilding from the ground up. Communications training can be taught separately or can be effectively integrated into other types of training, since it is fundamentally related to other disciplines.
Organizational development (OD) refers to the use of knowledge and techniques from the behavioral sciences to analyze an existing organizational structure and implement changes in order to improve organizational effectiveness. OD is useful in such varied areas as the alignment of employee goals with those of the organization, communications, team functioning, and decision making. In short, it is a development process with an organizational focus to achieve the same goals as other training and development activities aimed at individuals. OD practitioners commonly practice what has been termed "action research" to effect an orderly change which has been carefully planned to minimize the occurrence of unpredicted or unforeseen events. Action research refers to a systematic analysis of an organization to acquire a better understanding of the nature of problems and forces within it.
Career development refers to the formal progression of an employee's position within an organization by providing a long-term development strategy and designing training programs to achieve this strategy as well as individual goals. Career development represents a growing concern for employee welfare and their long-term needs. For the individual, it involves the description of career goals, the assessment of necessary action, and the choice and implementation of necessary steps. For the organization, career development represents the systematic development and improvement of employees. To remain effective, career development programs must allow individuals to articulate their desires. At the same time, the organization strives to meet those stated needs as much as possible by consistently following through on commitments and meeting the employee expectations raised by the program.
Management and supervisory development involves the training of managers and supervisors in basic leadership skills, enabling them to effectively function in their positions. For managers, training initiatives are focused on providing them with the tools to balance the effective management of their employee resources with the strategies and goals of the organization. Managers learn to develop their employees effectively by helping employees learn and change, as well as by identifying and preparing them for future responsibilities. Management development may also include programs for developing decision making skills, creating and managing successful work teams, allocating resources effectively, budgeting, business planning, and goal setting.
Goldstein, Irwin L., ed. Training and Development in Organizations. Jossey-Bass, 1989.
Kim, Nancy J. "Continuing Education is No Longer an Option." Puget Sound Business Journal. August 15, 1997.
Roberts, Gary, Gary Seldon, and Carlotta Roberts. Human Resources Management. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Small Business Administration, n.a.
Scarpello, V. G., James Ledvinka, and Thomas J. Bergmann. Human Resource Management: Environments and Functions. Southwestern, 1995.
Solomon, Charlene Marmer. "Continual Learning: Racing Just to Keep Up." Workforce. April 1999.
Training and Development (Encyclopedia of Business)
Training and development refer to programs designed to help new employees adjust to the workplace successfully. In addition, they include the formal ongoing efforts of corporations and other organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of methods and programs. In the modem workplace, these efforts have taken on a broad range of applications, from training in highly specific job skills to long-term professional development, and are applicable to all sorts of employees ranging from line workers to the chief executive officer. Training and development have emerged as formal corporate functions, integral elements of corporate strategy, and are recognized as professions with distinct theories and methodologies as companies increasingly acknowledge the fundamental importance of employee growth and development, as well as the necessity of a highly skilled workforce, in order to improve the success and efficiency of their organizations.
For the most part, training and development are used together to bring about the overall acclimation, improvement, and education of an organization's employees. While closely related, there are important differences between the terms and the scope of each. In general, training programs have very specific and quantifiable goals, such as operating a particular piece of machinery, understanding a specific process, or performing certain procedures with great precision. On the other hand, developmental programs concentrate on broader skills that are applicable to a wider variety of situations, such as decision making, leadership skills, and goal setting. In short, training programs are typically tied to a particular subject matter and are applicable to that subject only, while developmental programs center on cultivating and enriching broader skills useful in numerous contexts.
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
The apprenticeship system emerged in ancient cultures to provide a structured approach to the training of unskilled workers by master craftsmen. This system was marked by three distinct stages: the unskilled novice, the journeyman or yeoman, and finally, the master craftsman. Together, they formed an "organic" process whereby the novice "grew" into a master craftsman over a period of years.
With the onset of the Industrial Age, the training of the unskilled underwent a dramatic transformation in which vocational education and training emerged to replace the traditional apprentice system. The division of labor in an industrial factory resulted in specific job tasks that required equally specific training in a much shorter time span. As training activities grew more methodical and focused, the first recognizable modern training methods began to develop during the 19th and early 20th centuries: gaming simulations became an important tool in the Prussian military during the early 1800s and pyschodrama and role playing were developed by Dr. J. L. Moreno of Vienna, Austria, in 1910.
The early 20th century witnessed the emergence of training and development as a profession, resulting in the creation of training associations and societies, the advent of the assembly line requiring greater specificity in training, and the dramatic training requirements of the world wars. Important groups forming during this period include the American Management Association in 1923 (which began as the National Association of Corporation Schools in 1913), and the National Management Association in 1956 (which began as the National Association of Foremen in 1925). At the same time, Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced the assembly line at his Highland Park, Michigan, plant. Because the assembly line created an even greater division of labor, along with an unprecedented need for precision and teamwork, job tasks and assignments required more highly specific and focused training than ever before.
The enormous production needs of the World War I and II created a heavy influx of new workers with little or no industrial education or skills to the workplace, thereby necessitating massive training efforts that were at once fast and effective. In particular, the heavy demand for shipping construction during World War I resulted in a tenfold increase in workers trained on-site by instructors who were supervisors using a simple four-step method: show, tell, do, check. During World War II, large numbers of trained industrial workers left their jobs to enter the armed forces, severely limiting the organizational support normally provided by coworkers in training their replacements. Heavy demands were placed on foremen and supervisors, and the training within industry (TWI) service was formed to train supervisors as instructors. Job instruction training (JIT) was employed to train defense-plant supervisors in instructing new employees in necessary job skills as quickly as possible. Other programs included job relations training (JRT), job methods training (JMT), and job safety training (JST). During this time, the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) was formed.
By the end of World War II most companies and organizations realized the importance of training and development as a fundamental organizational tool. Training programs that originally were developed in response to national crises had become established corporate activities with long-term strategies working toward improving employee performance. In the mid1950s gaming simulations gained popularity. Trainers began giving serious consideration to the efficacy of their training programs, and interest in the evaluation of training programs grew. The 1960s witnessed an explosion of training methods as the number of corporations using assessment centers increased from one to 100 by the end of the decade. Government programs to train young men for industrial jobs, such as the Job Development Program 1965 and the Job Corps, were initiated to improve the conditions of the economically disadvantaged. New methods included training laboratories, sensitivity training, programmed instruction, performance appraisal and evaluation, needs assessments, management training, and organizational development.
By the 1970s a new sense of professionalism emerged in the training community. Training programs grew dramatically, and the ASTD produced the Professional Development Manual for Trainers. Government programs were aimed increasingly at minorities as a group and required corporations to increase their efforts to recruit minorities. With the rise of organizational development, the focus of training shifted away from the individual and toward the organization as a whole. Technological advances in training programs included the use of videotapes, satellites, and computers.
The 1980s and early 1990s saw important social, economic, and political changes that have had a profound effect on the way corporations do business, resulting in an ever increasing need for effective training. In a time of economic constraints coupled with increasing international competition, training and development programs needed to respond more quickly and effectively to technological change. Increasing governmental regulations also require a greater breadth of training programs to reflect the greater diversity of employees.
Furthermore, computers became an integral part of business and industry in the 1980s and 1990s, making knowledge of computer use essential for many workers. As a consequence, companies launched computer training and development programs to ensure that their employees possessed the needed computer skills. In addition, companies used computers as a training method known as computer-based training, relying on specially designed computer programs to impart knowledge and skills needed for a host of tasks.
CONTEMPORARY TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES
While new instructional methods are under continuous development, several training methods have proven highly effective and are widely used to acclimate new employee, impart new skills, and improve existing skills. They include structured on-the-job training, role playing, self-instruction, team building games and simulations, computer-based training, mentoring, and job rotation.
One of the most common and least expensive methods of training and development is on-the-job training (OJT). OJT refers to the process of learning skills while working where workersspecially new workersbtain the knowledge and skills they need to complete their tasks through a systematic training program. Research indicates that employees acquire approximately 80 percent of their work-related knowledge and skills on the job, making consideration and implementation of successful OJT programs indispensable for employers. While OJT dates back to ancient apprenticeship programs, much 20th-century OJT remained uncodified and unstructured until the 1980s and 1990s.
The structured forms of OJT that emerged promised to remedy problems associated with unstructured OJT by relying on a planned process designed and proven to impart the necessary skills by the end of the OJT period. Nevertheless, like unstructured OJT, structured OJT involves having an experienced employee train a new employee at the work site and having the new employee receive feedback, advice, and suggestions from coworkers and trainers. Structured OJT generally assumes that new employees lack certain skills and the goal of the OJT program is to instill these skills. Therefore, employers design the training programs so that new employees do not initially perform these new tasks in order to learn. Instead, they gain knowledge and experience that will facilitate the performance of these tasks at the appropriate time and gradually work toward performing these tasks. Moreover, trainers assist and intervene at structured intervals, rather than intervening at random points in the training program as can occur with unstructured OJT.
Implementing a structured OJT program involves five basic steps: (1) analyzing the tasks and skills to be learned; (2) selecting, training, and supervising trainers; (3) preparing training materials; (4) conducting an OJT program; and (5) evaluating the program and making any necessary improvements or modifications.
In role playing, trainees assume various roles and play out that role within a group to learn and practice ways of handling different situations. A facilitator creates a scenario that is to be acted out by the participants and guided by the facilitator. While the situation might be contrived, the interpersonal relations are genuine. Furthermore, participants receive immediate feedback from the facilitator and the scenario itself allowing better understanding of their own behavior.
Self-instruction refers an instructional method that emphasizes individual learning. In self-instruction programs, the employees take primary responsibility for their own learning. Unlike instructor- or facilitator-led instruction, trainees have a greater degree of control over topics, the sequence of learning, and the pace of learning. Depending on the structure of the instructional materials, trainees can achieve a higher degree of customized learning. Forms of self-instruction include programmed learning, individualized instruction, personalized systems of instruction, learner-controlled instruction, and correspondence study. For self-instruction programs to be successful, employers must not only make learning opportunities available, but also must promote interest in these learning opportunities. Self-instruction allows trainees to learn at their own pace and receive immediate feedback. This method also benefits companies that have to train only a few people at a time.
Team building is the active creation and maintenance of effective work groups with similar goals and objectives. Not to be confused with the informal, ad-hoc formation and use of teams in the workplace, team building is a formal and methodological process of building work teams with objectives and goals, facilitated by a third-party consultant. Team building is commonly initiated to combat ineffectual group functioning that negatively affects group dynamics, labor-management relations, quality, or productivity. By recognizing the problems and difficulties associated with the creation and development of work teams, team building provides a structured, guided process whose benefits include a greater ability to manage complex projects and processes, flexibility to respond to changing situations, and greater motivation among team members.
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS.
Games and simulations are structured competitions and operational models used as training situations to emulate real-life scenarios. The benefits of games and simulations include the improvement of problem-solving and decision-making skills, a greater understanding of the organizational whole, the ability to study actual problems, and the power to capture the student's interest.
In computer-based training (CBT), computers and computer-based instructional materials are the primary medium of instruction. Computer-based training programs are designed to structure and present instructional materials and to facilitate the learning process for the student. Primary uses of CBT include instruction in computer hardware, software, and operational equipment. The last is of particular importance because CBT can provide the student with a simulated experience of operating a particular piece of equipment or machinery while eliminating the risk of damage to costly equipment by a trainee or even a novice user. At the same time, the actual equipment's operational use is maximized because it need not be utilized as a training tool. The use of computer-based training enables a training organization to reduce training costs, while improving the effectiveness of the training. Costs are reduced through a reduction in travel, training time, amount of operational hardware, equipment damage, and instructors. Effectiveness is improved through standardization and individualization. In recent years, videodisc and CD-ROM have been successfully integrated into PC platforms allowing low-cost personal computers to serve as multimedia machines, increasing the flexibility and possibilities of CBT.
Mentoring refers to programs in which companies select mentorslso called advisers, counselors, and role modelsor trainees or let trainees choose their own. When trainees have questions or need help, they turn to their mentors, who are experienced workers or managers with strong communication skills. Mentors offer advice not only on how to perform specific tasks, but also on how to succeed in the company, how the company's corporate culture and politics work, and how to handle to delicate or sensitive situations. Furthermore, mentors provide feedback and suggestions to assist trainees in improving inadequate work.
Through job rotation, companies can create a flexible workforce capable of performing a variety of tasks and working for multiple departments or teams if needed. Furthermore, employees can cultivate a holistic understanding of a company through job rotation and can learn and appreciate how each department operates. Effective job rotation programs entail more than a couple of visits to different departments to observe them. Rather, they involve actual participation and completion of actual duties performed by these departments. In addition, job rotation duties encompass typical work performed under the same conditions as the employees of the departments experience. Because of the value some companies place on job rotation, they establish permanent training slots in major departments, ensuring ongoing exposure of employees to new tasks and responsibilities.
TYPES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
Companies can apply these different methods of training and development to any number of subjects to ensure the skills needed for various positions are instilled. Companies gear training and development programs towards both specific and general skills, including technical training, sales training, clerical training, computer training, communications training, organizational development, career development, supervisory development, and management development. The goal of these programs is for trainees to acquire new knowledge or skills in fields such as sales or computers or to enhance their knowledge and skills in these areas.
Technical training seeks to impart technical knowledge and skills using common training methods for instruction of technical concepts, factual information, and procedures, as well as technical processes and principles. Likewise, sales training concentrates on the education and training of individuals to communicate with customers in a persuasive manner and inculcate other skills useful for sales positions.
Communications training concentrates on the improvement of interpersonal communication skills, including writing, oral presentation, listening, and reading. In order to be successful, any form of communications training should be focused on the basic improvement of skills and not just on stylistic considerations. Furthermore, the training should serve to build on present skills rather than rebuilding from the ground up. Communications training can be taught separately or can be effectively integrated into other types of training, since it is fundamentally related to others disciplines.
Organizational development (OD) refers to the use of knowledge and techniques from the behavioral sciences to analyze existing organizational structure and implement changes in order to improve organizational effectiveness. OD is useful in such varied areas as the alignment of employee goals with those of the organization, communications, team functioning, and decision making. In short, it is a development process with an organizational focus to achieve the same goals as other training and development activities aimed at individuals. OD practitioners commonly practice what has been termed "action research" to effect an orderly change that has been carefully planned to minimize the occurrence of unpredicted or unforeseen events. Action research refers to a systematic analysis of an organization to acquire a better understanding of the nature of problems and forces within an organization.
Career development of employees covers the formal development of an employee's position within an organization by providing a long-term development strategy and training programs to implement this strategy and achieve individual goals. Career development represents a growing concern for employee welfare and the long-term needs of employees. For the individual, it involves stating and describing career goals, the assessment of necessary action, and the choice and implementation of necessary actions. For the organization, career development represents the systematic development and improvement of employees. To remain effective, career development programs must allow individuals to articulate their desires. At the same time, the organization strives to meet those stated needs as much as possible by consistently following through on commitments and meeting the expectations of the employees raised by the program.
MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT.
Management and supervisory development involves the training of managers and supervisors in basic leadership skills enabling them to function effectively in their positions. For managers this typically involves the development of the ability to focus on the effective management of their employee resources, while striving to understand and achieve the strategies and goals of the organization. Management training typically involves individuals above the first two levels of supervision and below senior executive management. Managers learn to effectively develop their employees by helping employees learn and change, as well as by identifying and preparing them for future responsibilities. Management development may also include programs that teach decision-making skills, creating and managing successful work teams, allocating resources effectively, budgeting, communication skills, business planning, and goal setting.
Supervisory development addresses the unique situation of the supervisor as a link between the organization's management and workforce. It must focus on enabling supervisors to deal with their responsibilities to both labor and management, as well as coworkers, and staff departments. Important considerations include the development of personal and interpersonal skills, understanding the management process, and productivity and quality improvement.
DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS
The design of training programs covers the planning and creation of training and development programs. Like the training programs themselves, the development of training programs has evolved into a profession that utilizes systematic models, methods, and processes of instructional systems design (ISD). Instructional systems design includes the systematic design and development of instructional methods and materials to facilitate the process of training and development and ensure that training programs are necessary, valid, and effective. Although the instructional design process can take on variety of sequences, the process must include the collection of data on the tasks or skills to be learned or improved, the analysis of these skills and tasks, the development of methods and materials, delivery of the program, and finally the evaluation of the training's effectiveness. Table I describes the process in greater detail.
Training and development programs often rely on the principles and theories of various behavioral sciences such as psychology and sociology. The behavioral sciences provide useful theories on individual behavior, motivations, organizational dynamics, and interpersonal relationships, which the developers of training programs can draw on when creating their programs. Similarly, the development of a distinctive
|Needs analysis||Measuring the disparity between current and desired skill levels|
|Task assessment||Collection of data on job tasks and the subsequent identification of learning requirements and possible difficulties|
|Stating objectives||Creation of concise statement of objectives and purpose as a benchmark|
|Assessment/testing||Development of testing materials designed to measure the performance of the objectives|
|Development of matenals||Selection of effective instructional strategies followed by the development of materials based on the chosen strategies|
|Plot programs||Piloting the program to gauge the effectiveness of the materials as well as identify potential weaknesses through subsequent evaluation|
|Evaluation||Evaluation of the efficacy of the methods and materials|
adult educational model has influenced the development of training programs, giving them an exclusive focus on adults. According to this model, adults learn best through goal-oriented instruction, unlike children, who learn best through instruction based on the subject matter itself. Hence, given the goal-oriented needs of adult education, the design and development of training materials have taken on a much higher level of structure and methodology than traditional methods for instructional development.
EVALUATING TRAINING PROGRAMS
Once a company implements a training program, it must evaluate the program's success, even if it has produced desired results for other companies and even if similar programs have produced desires for it. Companies first must determine if trainees are acquiring the desired skills and knowledge. If not, then they must ascertain why not and they must figure out if the trainees are failing to acquire these skills because of their own inability or because of ineffective training programs.
In order to evaluate training programs, companies must collect relevant data. The data should include easily measurable and quantifiable information such as costs, output, quality, and time, according to Jack J. Phillips in Recruiting, Training, and Retraining New Employees.
- Costs: budget changes, unit costs, project cost variations, and sales expenses.
- Output: Units produced, units assembled, productivity per hour, and applications reviewed.
- Quality: Error rates, waste, defective products, customer complaints, and shortages.
- Time: On-time shipments, production or processing time, overtime, training time, efficiency, and meeting deadlines.
Companies also can use qualitative data such as work habits, attitudes, development, adaptability, and initiative to evaluate training programs. Most companies, however, prefer to place more weight on the quantitative data previously outlined.
Furthermore, according to Phillips, companies tend to evaluate training and development programs on four levels: behavior, learning, reaction, and results. Businesses examine employee behavior after training programs in order to determine if the programs helped employees adjust to their environment; also, companies can obtain evidence on employee behavior via observation and interviews. Throughout the training process, employers monitor how well trainees are learning about the company, the atmosphere, and their jobs.
To evaluate training and development programs effectively, employers also gauge employee reactions to the programs. This feedback from trainees provides companies with crucial information on how employees perceive their programs. Using questionnaires and interviews, companies can identify employee attitudes toward various aspects of the training programs. Finally, employers attempt to determine the results of their training programs by studying the quantifiable data addressed earlier as well as by considering the employee turnover rate and job performance of workers who recently completed a training and development program.
[Bradley T. Bernatek,
updated by Karl Heil]
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