Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Rarely has a literary reputation been so securely based on one slim novel as that of Tomás Rivera (rih-VAYR-ah). Though he was also highly regarded as a college administrator and educator—becoming, in 1979, the first Chicano to be named a chancellor in the University of California system—and though he published a small collection of poems (Always, and Other Poems) in 1973 and scattered poems, essays, and short stories afterward, it is on his striking episodic novel, . . . and the earth did not part, that his literary reputation rests.
Born on December 22, 1935, the son of migrant workers Florencio and Josefa Hernández Rivera, Tomás Rivera himself did migrant work until 1957. He received a bachelor’s degree in education in 1958 and a master’s degree in educational administration in 1964 from Southwest Texas State University; he subsequently studied at the University of Oklahoma, from which he earned a doctorate in Romance languages and literature in 1969. His novel . . . and the earth did not part was first published in 1971, in an edition that printed both the original Spanish and its translation into English; it won the Quinto Sol National Chicano Literary Award. In 1978 he married Concepción Garza, and in 1979 he became chancellor of the University of California at Riverside.
Not a conventional novel, . . . and the earth did not part may appear to some at first reading to be a collection of loosely connected short stories and sketches. While the separate chapters are written and can be read as individual stories, critics agree that the deeper structure of the work as a whole demands that it be read as a novel.
The book begins with a chapter entitled “The Lost Year,” which introduces the theme of lost time that will continue through the novel. When the narrator describes a recurring dream in which the unnamed protagonist “would suddenly awaken and then realize that he was really asleep,” the reader may be put in mind of the beginning of Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu (1913-1927; Remembrance of Things Past, 1922-1931, 1981), in which the narrator wakes with the candle extinguished and cannot remember whether he has slept. As Rivera’s book continues, the reader understands that the period the narrator is describing as a year is actually several years, which have blended together into a single year. The fragmentation of the chapters that follow highlights less the memory loss of the protagonist than the slow regaining of memory he is experiencing.
The novel follows the effects of migrant living and working not only on the main character but...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Tomás Rivera was born in Crystal City, Texas, on December 22, 1935, the son of Mexican migrant workers who were part of the influx of Mexican laborers into the United States in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Much of Rivera’s boyhood was spent alongside his parents as they worked in the fields. Even through his junior college days, Rivera worked as a farm laborer in Texas, a fact that played a key role in his writing and, later, his work as an educational advocate on behalf of the Chicano worker.
He was graduated from Texas State University in San Marcos with a B.A. in English, and he earned a master’s degree in English and administration at Southwest Texas State University. In 1969, Rivera received a doctorate in Spanish literature at the University of Oklahoma. He served as vice president of administration at the University of Texas at San Antonio and executive vice president at the University of Texas at El Paso. In 1979, Rivera became the first Chicano to earn the distinction of appointment to a chancellor’s post in the University of California system—a particular honor for one of such humble beginnings and a testament to the perseverance of his individualistic spirit.
Tomás Rivera was the first winner of the Quinto Sol literary prize for the best Chicano work. His death cut short a life full of achievements and promise. Rivera was born to a family of migrant farmworkers in south Texas, and much of his writing is derived from his childhood experiences in a poor, Spanish-speaking, nomadic subculture.
Rivera began college in 1954, with concerns for his people motivating him to become a teacher. He earned his bachelor’s degree in 1958 and two master’s degrees, in 1964 and 1969, from Southwest Texas State University. He received his Doctorate in Romance Literatures in 1969 from the University of Oklahoma. His career as a college teacher and administrator included appointments in Texas at Sam Houston State University, Trinity University, and the University of Texas at San Antonio and at El Paso.
In 1979, Rivera became the youngest person and the first member of a minority group to be appointed chancellor of a campus of the University of California. Rivera spent his last five years at the helm of the University of California at Riverside.
Rivera’s poems and short stories are included in many anthologies of Chicano or Latino literature. He is recognized as one of the first to give voice to the silent Latino underclass of the American Southwest. His works explore the difficulties of growing up, of sorting truth from myth, and of finding one’s identity and self-esteem in the midst of oppressive poverty. The struggle to overcome internal and external difficulties is portrayed vividly in his novel And the Earth Did Not Part and in such stories as “Eva and Daniel,” “The Harvest,” and “Zoo Island.”
Biography (Critical Survey of Poetry: American Poets)
The son of Florencio Rivera and Josefa Rivera, Spanish-speaking migrant workers, Tomás Rivera traveled with his parents and worked in the fields and orchards alongside them throughout his childhood and adolescence. Each year, his family traveled from Texas to harvest crops in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, Iowa, and Michigan. He attended primary and secondary school in Texas, but he would not return to Texas until after the academic year had started, so he would have to make up whatever he had missed while working with his family. It was not until he was a college student that he was able to leave behind the life of a migrant farmworker. Rivera’s childhood experiences form the basis for much of his semiautobiographical novel and for several of his poems.
One particular incident from his childhood shows up in both his fiction and his poetry. While working in the Midwest, Rivera and others would routinely scour the local dumps. Rivera was particularly interested in retrieving books that had been thrown away and, over time, managed to gather a large collection. These books helped fuel his interest in reading and in pursuing writing as a career. The importance of this collection to Rivera is evident in that he kept the books throughout his life.
In 1954, he graduated from Crystal City High School and enrolled in Southwest Texas Junior College, where he completed his A.A. degree in 1956. He earned a B.A. in education (1958) and a master’s...
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