Timur Devastates Southern Russia (Chronology of European History)
Article abstract: Timur devastates southern Russia in fierce fighting against the Golden Horde, weakening the latter to the point that the grand duchy of Moscow increases in importance and independence.
Summary of Event
Born in 1336 near Samarkand, Timur was the son of a petty Mongol lord and entered a many-sided struggle for power in the collapsing Chagatai realm of the former empire of Genghis (Chingis) Khan. He emerged from the civil wars as victor and took the title of emir of Transoxiana in 1370, the formal beginning of his empire. Unable to assume the title of khan, which was reserved for blood relatives of Genghis, Timur was granted the title of great lord. He extended his authority into southern Khorezm and eastward into eastern Turkestan. From 1380 to 1393, Timur conquered all of Persia, including Mesopotamia and Azerbaijan, and the Caucasus.
In 1375, Timur had helped to make Tokhtamysh, a Chingisid, khan of the Blue Horde in Kazakhstan, and a few years later supported his effort to displace Emir Mamai as ruler of the Golden Horde, which included most of the Russian principalities. Mamai, ruling via puppet Chingisid khans, was powerful enough to retain control of the western half of the Horde. Then in 1380, after Grand Duke Dmitry of Moscow defeated the Tatars of the Horde in a battle at Kulikovo Field in a premature bid for independence, Tokhtamysh seized the opportunity to overthrow Mamai and...
(The entire section is 1453 words.)
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