Thomas Percy 1729-1811
English poet, translator, and author.
A well-known scholar and translator, Thomas Percy is best remembered for his three-volume collection of popular ballads titled Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, which he issued in 1765. The work was credited with the revival of English minstrel poetry in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and earned Percy both fame and respect as a pioneer in the field. Many of the individual pieces in Reliques were said to have inspired various Romantic poems.
Born in Shropshire, England, to Jane Nott and Arthur Lowe Percy, a grocer and tobacconist, Percy was encouraged in his early education by his father, who instilled in him an interest in books and reading. The young Percy did well in school and was eventually awarded a scholarship to Christ Church College, Oxford, where he graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1750. Percy was drawn to poetry as a young man, and he composed numerous poems and songs in these years, all dedicated to a woman named Flavia. Most of these pieces were not published during his lifetime and few have survived; however, those that are extant exhibit the influence of numerous early English balladeers as well as the work of such authors as John Milton, Alexander Pope, and Thomas Gray. Scholars also suggest that Percy's early efforts were influenced by a folio manuscript of ballads, romances, and lyric poems that he had acquired during his school years at the home of an old Shropshire friend, Humphrey Pitt. Percy was probably unaware of the value of this manuscript, and he asked for it only after he saw Pitt's maid using the pages to light the fire.
A second scholarship at Oxford helped Percy attain a master's degree in 1753, the same year he was ordained a priest. Percy was then appointed vicar of Easton Maudit, and acquired a second income as curate of Wilby three years later. The Earl of Wilby encouraged Percy's literary pursuits and also introduced him at court. It was while in London with Wilby that Percy met James Grainger and Samuel Johnson. His friendship with both writers lasted many years, and Grainger was especially influential in helping Percy develop his poetic and editorial talents. In 1759 Percy married Anne Gutteridge, with whom he had five daughters and one son. During these years, Percy continued to write poetry, and in 1758, a thirty-two line “Song” was published in Robert Dodsley's Collection of Poems. An imitation of a Scottish song, this short lyric was well received and frequently republished. Encouraged by Grainger, Percy then contributed several translations—including Tibullus's “Elegy I” and Ovid's “Elegy to Tibullus”—to Grainger's Poetical Translations of the Elegies of Tibullus. Yet, despite repeated entreaties from Johnson, Edward Lye, and other writers, Percy declined working on an edition of the ballads he had earlier acquired in Shropshire. Instead he continued to focus his energies on translating other works, including a seventeenth-century Chinese novel titled Hau Kiou Choaan (1761) and other related nonfiction titles. It was not until the early 1760s that Percy would turn his attention to the early manuscript of ballads and songs he had acquired, issuing it eventually as Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, the first of his publications to bear his name. The work was an immediate success, and Percy gained much fame following its issuance. He continued to publish other translations and collections of poetry while fulfilling his duties as a priest in the Church of England. Percy was eventually appointed Dean of Carlisle, and then promoted to Bishop of Dromore in 1782. He served in the latter position for over twenty years, achieving great success and respect for his leadership of the diocese and his devotion to the education of the young. Meanwhile, he continued to pursue his literary interests, even editing a fourth edition of the Reliques, which was never published. Percy died in 1811, five years after the death of his wife, Anne. Both were buried in the cathedral of Dromore.
Percy's first major translation was from a manuscript of a seventeenth-century Chinese novel titled Hau Kiou Choaan. He himself did not know Chinese, but used as his source a three-part translation into English by an earlier translator. The fourth part of the novel was in Portuguese, which Percy taught himself in order to complete the story, combining all four parts into a coherent whole. While both Percy and his publisher, Robert Dodsley, had expected success for the book, which was very similar in its storyline to such works as Samuel Richardson's Pamela and Clarissa, the book did not sell well. Contemporary reviewers were more impressed with Percy's annotations—which included a preface, a bibliography, a fifteen-page index and numerous notes ranging in length from short sentences to several long essays—than they were with the translation itself. It is believed that Hau Kiou Choaan may have been the first Chinese novel printed in England. Shortly thereafter, Percy issued a collection of seven essays on China by various authors, titled Miscellaneous Pieces Relating to the Chinese. In 1762, Percy published a collection of stories about widows who were false to their vows of fealty towards their dead husbands. Titled The Matrons, this was followed the next year by Five Pieces of Runic Poetry (1763), a slim volume of Icelandic poetry. Very little was known of Icelandic poetry in England prior to this translation. Percy himself was dependent on Latin versions of the works, and he had a great deal of difficulty capturing the spirit of the Nordic battle poems. His subsequent translation of The Song of Solomon (1764), for which he relied on the King James version, was much more readable, and he characterized this effort as an attempt to rescue “one of the most beautiful pastorals in the world.”
In 1760, Percy had also begun work on a collection of ancient poems, selecting the best ballads from a folio manuscript of lyrics and poems he had acquired years earlier during his school days in Shropshire. He supplemented these songs with later poems, searching out ballads from other parts of Britain, particularly Scotland. Percy was aided by several of his friends in the selection effort. The resultant collection, Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, bearing a dedication by Samuel Johnson, was finally published by Robert Dodsley in 1765. The book was an instant success with readers and reviewers, and Percy himself was immediately appointed tutor to Algernon Percy, the younger son of the Earl of Northumberland. The Countess of Northumberland had supported Percy's work on the volume, and it is speculated that much of its initial success was due to her patronage as well as to Percy's adept citing of the several poets who had provided him assistance in its compilation. The list included such notables as Johnson, William Shenstone, and David Garrick. Regardless of the reasons for its initial success, the collection had been compiled with great care, quality being Percy's principal criteria for inclusion. Both Scottish and English ballads were included, and the poems were arranged chronologically. The three-volume collection also placed poems on similar subjects together and each group was preceded by an introduction or essays that were themselves noteworthy milestones in English literary history. Prior to Percy's interest, ballads had not been taken seriously and he was concerned that his efforts would be considered an inappropriate activity for a minister of the Church. Therefore, he took great pains to minimize the work and even went so far as to refer to it as “a strange collection of trash.”
In addition to the Reliques, Percy had also begun work on numerous other translations; of these he completed work on only two, A Key to the New Testament (1766) and a translation of Paul Henri Mallet's Introduction a l'Histoire de Dannemarc, which was issued in 1770 as Northern Antiquities. A Key to the New Testament drew on several contemporary scholarly works for information and was written in clear and concise language. Although Percy modestly contended that the work had originally been written for the use of his parishioners, it found an enthusiastic audience with university students as well as clerical scholars, and at least six editions were published during Percy's lifetime. Northern Antiquities served a similar purpose to his earlier Runic Poetry, helping to familiarize his English readers with Scandinavian poetry and Nordic mythology and folklore. During Percy's service as Bishop of Dromore, he continued to edit several other works; his best-known work from this era is a long poem titled The Hermit of Warkworth (1771). In addition, Percy issued two more editions of his Reliques, and wrote several articles for the various literary magazines of the day.
Prior to Percy's publication of the Reliques, ballads had not been considered a suitable subject for scholarly investigation. Because of this, and because of his position in English society as a church minister, Percy himself frequently minimized his efforts on this collection. Nonetheless, the Reliques have since been acknowledged as one of the most lasting and powerful influences in the revival of English minstrel poetry during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A few years following the publication of the Reliques, Percy's editorial methods and accuracy came under attack by contemporary antiquarian, Joseph Ritson, who specifically focused on Percy's practice of altering the pieces in the collection without noting each change for the reader. This criticism led Percy to revise and reissue several new editions of his work during his lifetime. More recently, though, critics have come to Percy's defense, praising him as a highly-skilled scholar and editor. According to Cleanth Brooks, an assessment of Percy's talents must rest not only on his work with ballads but with several other pieces of pioneering work, including his translations of Nordic and Chinese literary texts. Similarly, in an essay appraising Percy's editing skills, Zinnia Knapman has noted that Percy's significance as a folklorist has been only grudgingly acknowledged. Knapman points out that most discussions of Percy's Reliques tend to focus on the influence this collection had on the Romantic poets or on the controversial nature of Percy's editorial methods. However, she believes that when examined from a historical perspective, Percy's work on this anthology can “only been seen as a sensible, creative, and positive force.” Despite the controversy surrounding the editorial practices employed on the Reliques, Percy's achievement with the collection is now universally acknowledged, and the work is considered England's primary anthology of ballads and lyrics.
Hau Kiou Choaan or The Pleasing History. A Translation from the Chinese Language. To Which Are Added, I. The Argument or Story of a Chinese Play, II. A Collection of Chinese Proverbs, and III. Fragments of Chinese Poetry. In Four Volumes. With Notes [editor and part translator] (novel) 1761
The Matrons. Six Short Histories [editor and part translator] (short stories) 1762
Five Pieces of Runic Poetry Translated from the Islandic Language [translator] (poetry) 1763
The Song of Solomon, Newly Translated from the Original Hebrew: With a Commentary and Annotations [translator] (poetry) 1764
Reliques of Ancient English Poetry: Consisting of Old Heroic Ballads, Songs, and other Pieces of our earlier Poets, (Chiefly of the lyric Kind.) Together with some few of later Date 3 vols. [editor] (poetry) 1765
A Key to the New Testament. Giving an Account of the several Books, their Contents, their Authors, And of the Times and Occasions, on which they were respectively written (nonfiction) 1766
Four Essays, as Improved and Enlarged in the Second Edition of the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (essays) 1767
Northern Antiquities: Or, a Description of the Manners, Customs, Religion and Laws of the Ancient Danes, and other Northern Nations; Including those of Our own Saxon Ancestors. With a...
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SOURCE: “Introduction,” in The Percy Letters: The Correspondence of Thomas Percy & William Shenstone, Yale University Press, 1977, pp. v-xxvii.
[In the following essay, Brooks provides an overview of Percy's correspondence with author William Shenstone, focusing particularly on Shenstone's assistance in the compilation of Percy's Reliques.]
The first extant letter of this correspondence is dated 24 November 1757. It is from Percy, and on it Shenstone has scribbled a note that reads: “Mr. Percy is domestic chaplain to the Earl of Sussex and has Genius and Learning, accompany'd with great Vivacity.” The note suggests that the correspondence had just begun, for it is the sort of comment that one might jot down on an early letter but not on one received long after correspondence had begun. Percy himself is quite definite that the correspondence began in 1757. When his letters to Shenstone had been returned to him after Shenstone's death, he arranged them in sequence and wrote the following note on one of the early pages:1 “A series of Letters, written to and from William Shenstone Esq of The Leasowes, begun in 1757, soon after our first acquaintance and continued down to the time of his death in 1763.”
This note might be taken as decisive, but there is one piece of evidence, apparently contradictory, that has to be dealt with. Miss...
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SOURCE: “The Young Thomas Percy,” in Forum, Vol. 17, No. 2, Spring, 1979.
[In the following essay, Brooks offers an account of Percy's writings, noting that the preponderance of negative critical attention given to the Reliques diminishes Percy's reputation as a scholar.]
Thomas Percy is usually remembered as a man of one book, the celebrated Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, the work that Wordsworth and Coleridge were to accord the highest praise; and the Reliques itself is all too often thought of as simply a collection of folk ballads. The result is that Percy has acquired a modest fame as a purveyor of folk ballads who, unwittingly and almost by accident, provided a stimulus to the Romantic poets and helped bring about a momentous shift in literary taste.
Yet such an account oversimplifies and distorts Percy's real accomplishments as a scholar. It even badly falsifies the nature of the Reliques itself, for though the ballad content of the book is large and very important, such an estimate fails to note how much of this anthology is devoted to a general recovery of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English literature—and, more than that, some attempt to reclaim England's medieval heritage. Let me suggest something of the extent of Percy's range.
He was, for example, the first editor to publish one of Chaucer's short lyrics...
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SOURCE: “The Reliques of Ancient English Poetry,” in Thomas Percy, Twayne, 1981, pp. 72-108.
[In the following excerpt, Davis examines Percy's Reliques, analyzing the text's sources and providing an overview of its contents and a brief survey of its various editions.]
The eighteenth-century ballad revival has been so intimately associated with the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry that it has been easy to overlook the fact that Percy's compilation marks the end of an era of ballad interest as well as a beginning.1 Most students of the period are familiar with Joseph Addison's 1711 Spectator papers, numbers 70 and 74, which dignified “Chevy Chase” with both high praise and serious critical analysis. Fewer are aware of the published volumes of verse that Percy, assisted by William Shenstone, turned over page by page in search of the gems that would help to distinguish his collection. Without them the Reliques would not merely have been different. It might never have come into existence at all.
I THE BACKGROUND OF THE RELIQUES
Of the 175 poems in the first edition of the Reliques, only about fifty can be traced directly to the folio manuscript which was the starting point of Percy's work. For the rest Percy had to seek elsewhere, and even for those in his own manuscript he welcomed the opportunity...
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SOURCE: “Thomas Percy: The Dilemma of a Scholar-Cleric,” in The Kentucky Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1982, pp. 28-46.
[In the following essay, Davis examines contemporary controversies surrounding Percy's Reliques, focusing specifically on Percy's accuracy and editorial practices.]
“I bestow upon a few old poems,” Thomas Percy wrote to David Dalrymple on 25 January 1763, “those idle moments, which some of my grave brethren pass away over a sober game at whist.”1 How Dalrymple reacted to Percy's analogy is not known, but the modern reader is likely to dismiss it as a facetious if not wholly insincere depreciation of Percy's own efforts, which were pointing toward the publication of England's most influential anthology, the three-volume Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. Percy's “idle moments” filled up much more than the odd hours and occasional evenings his comment would suggest: mornings and afternoons in the British Museum, for example; eleven days at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where Percy transcribed ballads from the Samuel Pepys collection of black letter broadsides; and important literary correspondences with poets and scholars like William Shenstone, Richard Farmer, Thomas Warton, Evan Evans, and David Dalrymple himself. Percy's course of reading and inquiry for the Reliques overshadowed not merely his numerous literary efforts of the decade, but his...
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SOURCE: “A Reappraisal of Percy's Editing,” in Folk Music Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1986, pp. 202-14.
[In the following essay, Knapman discusses the critical evaluation, by both contemporaries and twentieth-century scholars, of Percy's editing practices in the Reliques.]
In 1765, the year when George III's Stamp Act started the great ‘No Taxation without Representation’ row with the American Colonies, Bishop Percy published a heavily edited and annotated anthology entitled Reliques of Ancient English Poetry.1 The collection, although a rich source of folk texts, has never been popular with folklorists and Percy's significance has only been grudgingly acknowledged. When writing of the Reliques, critics have either drawn attention to the influence the collection exerted on the Romantic Poets, or alternatively, and this is particularly true of folk scholars, they have bewailed Percy's editorial methods with vehement abuse. H. B. Wheatley complained of Percy's ‘flagrant manipulation of his sources’2 and Hales and Furnivall lamented that Percy had ‘puffed out … pomatumed … and powdered’ everything.3 Percy's editing is still predominantly remembered as destructive although it is precisely due to his editing that the Reliques was able to have such considerable influence, not only upon the course of English literature but also upon the...
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SOURCE: “Old Barons in New Robes: Percy's Use of the Metrical Romances in the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry,” in Hermeneutics and Medieval Culture, edited by Patrick J. Gallacher and Helen Damico, State University of New York Press, 1989, pp. 225-35.
[In the following essay, Donatelli analyzes the Folio manuscript that was the primary source for Percy's Reliques, and notes the influence of metrical romances on Percy's editorial selections for this work.]
The publication of Thomas Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry in 1765 changed the course of English literature. Wordsworth claimed that England's poetry “had been absolutely redeemed by it,” and he acknowledged the debt which he and other Romantic poets, most notably Coleridge, owed to the Reliques.1 In later life, Scott recounted how his happy discovery of Percy's anthology “beneath a large platanas tree in the ruins of an … old fashioned arbour” caused him to miss his dinner hour, “notwithstanding the sharp appetite of thirteen.”2 The Reliques went through four editions during Percy's lifetime, and the more than fifty editions of the work which have been published since Percy's death in 1811 attest to the continuing importance and stature of this collection of ballads, songs, and lyrics.
Even Dr. Johnson, an inveterate ballad-hater, had praised...
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SOURCE: “Percy, the Antiquarians, the Ballad, and the Middle Ages,” in Studies in Medievalism, Vol. 7, 1995, pp. 22-32.
[In the following essay, Morgan assesses the literary status of ballads from medieval times to the present, specifically focusing on eighteenth-century perceptions of balladry via the works of Thomas Percy.]
The eighteenth-century obsession with the Middle Ages in a search for a British national character brought with it the first examination of the traditional ballads. These, according to the antiquarians, evinced a primitive chivalry of thought and manners which indicated the essential nobility of the native English soul. Today, we still recognize in medieval balladry the voice and perceptions of the illiterate commoner, but our more demanding critical eye deems them debased forms or imperfect imitations of courtly writings, their literary merit negligible. Unfortunately, this persistent perception results, not from the songs themselves, but from the judgments of the Restoration and eighteenth-century literati, even such champions as Thomas Percy and Joseph Addison. Through their attempts to ennoble the medieval character through literature, the antiquarians in fact assured the scorn and neglect of the ballads—and, by extension, of the people who produced them—shaping our perceptions for some two hundred years.
Let me briefly recapitulate the status of...
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SOURCE: “Celts, Goths, and the Nature of the Literary Source,” in Tradition in Transition: Women Writers, Marginal Texts, and the Eighteenth-Century Canon, edited by Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ and James G. Basker, Clarendon Press, 1996, pp. 275-96.
[In the following essay, Groom examines the relevance of James Macpherson's Ossian to Percy's work on the Reliques, pointing to contemporary eighteenth-century controversies regarding the importance of textual histories and sources.]
This chapter examines James Macpherson's sensational Ossian (1760-5)1 and its relevance to Percy's Reliques (1765), arguing that Thomas Percy's work, which began as a straightforward response to the Scotsman, was actually predicated upon a crisis within the evolving canon of English literature. I will show that accounts of ancient cultures were determined by problems caused by the nature of the literary source, whether oral or literate. The rival claims of Macpherson and Percy on the literary establishment reveal that the presentation of the source was crucial to the reception of eighteenth-century antiquarian literature and its incorporation into the canon of English poetry: each writer employed an exclusive methodology, derived from opposed theories of British history, to validate his respective ancient poetry. The story of how Percy came to compile the Reliques is, therefore, full of...
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Anderson, W. E. K., ed. The Correspondence of Thomas Percy & Robert Anderson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988, 344 p.
A collection of Percy's correspondence with Robert Anderson, a friend during Percy's later years.
Brooks, Cleanth, ed. The Correspondence of Thomas Percy & Richard Farmer. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1946, 218 p.
A collection of letters between Percy and the scholar and antiquarian Richard Farmer.
Davis, Bertram H. Thomas Percy: A Scholar-Cleric in the Age of Johnson. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, 361 p.
Book-length biography of Percy organized into chapters based on significant professional periods in Percy's life.
Falconer, A. F., ed. The Correspondence of Thomas Percy & David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1954, 186 p.
The correspondence between Percy and Sir David Dalrymple, who assisted Percy in the collection of several Scottish poems which were included in the Reliques.
Falconer, A. F., ed. The Correspondence of Thomas Percy & George Paton. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961, 198 p.
The correspondence between Percy and George Paton involving the collection of ballads...
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