Thomas Morton 1579?-1647
American adventurer, trader, lawyer, and travel writer.
Morton is one of the most colorful and controversial figures in colonial American history. His only book, New English Canaan (1637), is an account of life at his New England settlement and fur-trading post of Merrymount, or Ma-re-Mount, and offers perhaps the earliest description of Native American life and culture. Morton's book is also significant for being, unlike virtually every other early history of the region, told from the point of view of a non-Puritan. Indeed, Morton and his companions were viewed with hostility by the Pilgrims of nearby Plymouth and other settlements, who considered their reveling and association with the local Indians to be immoral. Morton's description of the revels and merriment at Ma-re-Mount gave rise to the depiction of Morton's exploits in a number of works of American literature, most notably Nathaniel Hawthorne's story “The Maypole of Merry Mount.” For centuries Morton was disdained as an irresponsible liberitine whose account was not to be taken seriously because of its fictionalizing, harsh criticism of the Pilgrims, and obscure classical and biblical references. Since the 1960s, however, Morton has been seen in a more favorable light, as someone who presents a sympathetic and at least to some extent accurate account of early Native American life and manners, who shows an appreciation for the beauty of the American landscape, and who uses humor and satire to great effect to offer a critical look at the hypocrisy of the Pilgrims as he contrasts their inhumanity to the kindness and humanity of the Indians.
Very little is known about Morton's early life. He was most likely born in 1579 or 1580 in the West Country of England. From some brief remarks made in New English Canaan, it is surmised that his father was a soldier. Morton trained as a lawyer at Clifford's Inn in London and practiced as an attorney in the West Country. In 1621 he married Alice Miller, a widow whose legal affairs he had been managing. Records show that for about three years Morton was engaged in legal action with his wife's son over property rights.
In 1624 Morton set sail for the New World aboard the Unity, which was under the command of Captain Wollaston. The party arrived on the shore of what is now Quincy Bay in Massachusetts in the spring of 1624. The area, called Passonagessit (“Little Neck of Land”) by the native tribes, was apparently the heart of Indian country, although it was not inhabited at the time. Morton and his companions set up a plantation and fur-trading post at the site they called Mount Wollaston, which was about thirty miles from Plymouth, the site of a larger English settlement. The name of the settlement was changed to Ma-re-Mount by the inhabitants, and was also known as Merry Mount or Merrymount because of the merrymaking or reveling that took place there. In 1627, his fur-trading post thriving, Morton and his companions erected a maypole at the plantation. They invited local Indians, both women and men, to join the settlers and dance around the maypole. According to Morton, the Puritans at Plymouth, already envious of the success of his plantation and disapproving of the “ungodly” ways of his companions, were incensed by this act, deeming the maypole an idol that should be destroyed. While Morton saw the revels as “harmless mirth,” Governor William Bradford, presenting the position of the Puritans in his chronicle of Plymouth, History of Plymouth Plantation, saw the merrymaking at the maypole in a quite different light, labeling Morton the “lord of misrule” who maintained a school of atheism. In the spring of 1628 the Puritans of Plymouth and other nearby plantations charged Morton with selling guns to the Indians and creating various disturbances. He was arrested by Miles Standish and after a brief trial was transported back to England.
After being tried and acquitted in England, Morton returned to Ma-re-Mount in 1629. He clashed with John Endecott (an official who had, while Morton was in England, cut down the maypole at Ma-re Mount) over the rights of the individual traders to carry on their activities independently of any local management. A feud began with Morton and the officials of Massachusetts Bay Company, who claimed control of the trading territory, and Morton was again arrested in 1630 and shipped back to England. The authorities also burned down Morton's house and confiscated his goods, charging that he had, among other things, inflicted injuries upon the Indians. Bradford in his History also claims that Morton was wanted in England on suspicion of murder. In England, Morton sought to nullify the Massachusetts Bay Company patent but was unsuccessful. He wrote New English Canaan while in exile in England, in some measure as part of his campaign against the Massachusetts Bay Company. The book was likely penned around 1634 and published in 1637 in Amsterdam, although there is some speculation that it was published earlier but seized by the authorities.
Morton returned to New England again in 1643, wintering in Plymouth and then traveling in the wilderness. He was watched closely by the authorities and the following year he was imprisoned again, charged with agitating against the Massachusetts Bay Company. His portrayal of certain figures in New English Canaan was cited as evidence against him. After spending a year in a Boston jail, Morton was fined a hundred pounds and set free. He moved to Maine, where he died in 1647.
Morton's only published work was New English Canaan, a book which is in some sense a historical document, though scholars have noted its historical inaccuracies and fictional aspects. Most early historians tended to reject Morton's appraisal of the Puritan authorities and found fault with his motives, while more recent commentators have viewed the book as a literary work that offers insights into the psychology of the early American settlers and Native American life. New English Canaan is divided into three books. The first concerns the Indians of New England, and reports and speculates on their languages, ancestors, rites, beliefs, and way of life. Morton's account of the Native Americans is largely sympathetic, as he insists on the natives' basic goodness and humanity, admires their simple life and closeness with nature, and extols their hospitality. He draws parallels between their values and those of the English—including their love of pleasure—and contrasts them with the Puritans, who are in his view ill-educated and devoid of common humanity. In the second book of New English Canaan Morton describes the natural resources of New England. He comments on the country's beauty and promise, its fertile soil, pure air, and healthy climate. In his vivid descriptions of the landscape, Morton shows an intimate familiarity with the country. But Morton's pleasing portrayal of New England, he admits, is presented with an ulterior motive. As he says in the first chapter of Book Two, he means to show Englishmen what commodities are available in New England so that they might settle there and take advantage of the fur trade before the Dutch can do so. However, despite the description of the land in terms of its natural resources, Morton reveals a deep love for his natural surroundings, using metaphorical language and biblical allusions to liken it to an Arcadia or paradise on earth.
The third book of New English Canaan is a clear departure from the earlier, expository sections, as it deals with the lives of the Puritans and their conflicts with the inhabitants of Ma-re Mount. The tone in this book is deeply satirical, and its stories are often disjointed and use a variety of styles, from satire to straight narrative to complex allegory. The most notable portion of the third book tells of the erecting of the maypole and the revels at Ma-re Mount This section includes two poems. The first (“The Poem,” or “Rise Oedipus”) is attached to the maypole and its meaning confounds the Puritans. The second (“Song”) is a drinking song sung by the revelers as they dance around the maypole. The rest of Book Three deals with events which took place between 1629 and 1634, including Morton's two arrests and deportations. The tone of the book is increasingly serious as Morton attacks those who have sought to destroy him, but there are still touches of humor as he lampoons his enemies—for example calling Miles Standish “Captain Shrimp”—and satirizes the wickedness of the supposedly saintly Puritans. Throughout the work Morton blends fact and fiction, using classical allusions and references as he presents his story. The result is a work which is at times confusing, but filled with humor and fascinating insights into the lives of the colonists, Indians, and Morton himself.
Morton has been largely neglected by critics in the three and a half centuries since his New English Canaan was published. Some scholars have suggested that the suppression of his work and ideas has been a direct result of his conflict with the Puritan ideology that became the dominant tradition of thought in American history and literature. Bradford's influential History of Plymouth Plantation, which criticizes Morton and his “atheistic” ways, has been treated as the more reliable account of Morton's life on the Ma-re Mount plantation than Morton's own work, although in recent years scholars have challenged this view. Charles Francis Adams, who edited the still-authoritative edition of New English Canaan in 1883, presents Morton in largely unflattering terms, siding with the Puritan authorities in their assessment of his character. Throughout the years, however, Morton has been defended by some, including his contemporary Samuel Maverick, who was sympathetic due to his own problems with the New England Puritans, and the nineteenth-century historian B. F. De Costa, who saw Morton as a misunderstood figure. The critical assessment of Morton began to shift after the 1960s, as historians and literary critics began to see similarities in Morton's views of the Native Americans with those of modern historians. Although Morton is not widely read or studied to this day, critical appraisal of his work is beginning to paint a more favorable picture, and at least one commentator has seen in him the roots of the countercultural movements that have played an integral part in American social life and history.
Although the historical figure Morton has been paid scant attention, the character and spirit of Morton have been portrayed in a number of works of American literature. Almost all have been concerned with the maypole revels at Ma-re Mount. Morton figures in John Lothrop Motley's 1849 novel Merry Mount: A Romance of the Massachusetts Colony, and Hawthorne describes the festivities at Morton's plantation in “The Maypole of Merry Mount.” Morton also appears in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poetry, in Stephen Vincent Benét's The Devil and Daniel Webster (1937), L. S. Davidson's 1964 novel The Disturber, and Robert Lowell's 1965 play Endecott and the Red Cross. However, these works portray Morton less than sympathetically, usually as a flamboyant dreamer whose love of pleasure is his ultimate downfall. With the renewal of interest in his work—as historians and critics find new appreciation for his sympathetic portrayal of early Indian manners and his love for the American landscape—Morton's reputation too has enjoyed a more positive assessment.
New English Canaan or New Canaan. Containing an abstract of New England, composed in three bookes. The first booke setting forth the originall of the natives, their manners and customes, together with their tractable nature and love towards the English. The second booke setting forth the naturall indowments of the country, and what staple commodities it yealdeth. The third booke setting forth, what people are planted there, their prosperity, what remarkable accidents have happened since the first planting of it, together with their tenents and practice of their church. Written by Thomas Morton of Cliffords inne gent, upon tenne yeares knowledge and experiment of the country (history and travel narrative) 1637
The New English Canaan of Thomas Morton. With introductory matter and notes by Charles Francis Adams, Jr. (history and travel narrative) 1883
New English Canaan: Text, Notes, Biography & Criticism (history and travel narrative) 2001
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SOURCE: Duyckinck, Evert A. and George L. Duyckinck. “Thomas Morton.” In Cyclopaedia of American Literature, edited by M. Laird Simons, Vol. I, pp. 33-5. Philadelphia: William Rutter & Co., 1877.
[In the following essay from a work first published in 1856, the critics present an overview of Morton's experiences in New England, using details presented in New English Canaan, a work they find to be humorous if not entirely factual.]
The readers of Nathaniel Hawthorne cannot fail to remember “the May-pole of Merry Mount.” The sketch, in its leading features, is a faithful presentation of a curious episode in the early history of New England. It has been narrated by the chief actor in the scene, “Mine Host of Ma-re Mount” himself, and his first telling of the “twice told tale” is well worth the hearing.
Thomas Morton, “of Clifford's Inn, gent.,” came to Plymouth in 1622, with Weston's party. Many of these returned the following year, and the remainder were scattered about the settlements. Our barrister says that they were very popular with the original settlers as long as their liquors lasted, and were turned adrift afterwards. Be that as it may, he remained in the country, and we hear of him a few years afterwards as one of the company of Captain Wollaston who came to America in 1625. Wollaston appears to have had a set of fellows similar to those of Weston....
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SOURCE: Adams, Charles Francis. “The May-Pole of Merrymount.” The Atlantic Monthly XXXIX, Nos. 235, 236 (May, June 1877): 557-67, 686-97.
[In the following essay, published in two parts in the May and June, 1877, issues of the Atlantic Monthly, Adams presents the historical context in which Morton lived, comments on Morton's wit and reputedly “loose” moral character, and offers an account of Morton's life in New England, including his difficulties with the law.]
I. MAY-DAY, 1627.
The May-pole of Merrymount—that May-pole which inspired the historian Motley's first effort in literature, and which Hawthorne made the subject of a brilliant sketch—was erected on May-day of the year 1627. The 1st of May, old style, fell upon what is now the 10th of the month. Accordingly, on the tenth day of the coming month of May the full period of two hundred and fifty years will have elapsed since Thomas Morton and his motley crew awoke the echoes of the wilderness on the shores of Boston bay; greeting with noisy revels what may, perhaps, not inaptly be described as the English anniversary of summer's birth.
Two hundred and fifty years represent no trifling portion of the history of any people. They constitute in themselves a very respectable antiquity. In the case of America they carry us back to the beginning of all things,—to the genesis of the race; while...
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SOURCE: De Costa, B. F. “Morton of Merry Mount.” The Magazine of American History VIII, No. 2 (February 1882): 81-94.
[In the following essay, De Costa paints a sympathetic portrait of Morton—whom he finds to be one of the most interesting and misunderstood figures in the history of New England—using information gleaned from William Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, John Winthrop's History of New England, and Morton's own New English Canaan.]
Historic truth often contains elements stranger and more dramatic than fiction, yet writers of romance incline to fling their opportunities away. Motley did this, when dealing with the character of Thomas Morton, in his maiden effort called Merry Mount; while Hawthorne, in his Twice Told Tales, was still more heedless of the true value of the same theme. These attractive writers, therefore, have made the general reader familiar with Morton's name, but little more. Prompted by a vague, and as yet undeveloped historic instinct, Motley offered a half apology for the doubtful character of his performance, but the reader searches in vain on the page of Hawthorne for some proper indication, that the picture of Morton is not the offspring of an imagination every way weird, morbid, and grotesque. Who, therefore, was Morton of Merry Mount, that he should present such an aspect in early New England history?
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SOURCE: Cairns, William B. “The New England Colonies. First Period, 1620-1676.” In A History of American Literature, pp. 21-55. New York: Oxford University Press, 1916.
[In the following excerpt,which originally appeared in 1912, Cairns offers a broad outline of Morton's life in New England, finds him to be an irresponsible and ultimately unworthy person, and judges the account in New English Canaan to be inaccurate, carelessly written, and merely superficially humorous.]
The exact facts regarding [Morton's] life are somewhat in doubt, for his own story and that of the Puritans do not agree, and probably neither is entirely trustworthy. It is known, however, that he was a Cavalier and a member of the Church of England, who in the early years of the Plymouth settlement held a plantation and trading post at Mount Wollaston, or Merry Mount. Here, with a few companions of the same sort, he traded with the Indians, and enjoyed life according to his disposition. His presence was not pleasing to the Pilgrims, who found that he interfered with their trade in beaver, and who were especially troubled because his way of life was not theirs. As good Governor Bradford complains:
They allso set up a May-pole, drinking and dancing aboute it many days togeather, inviting the Indean women, for their consorts, dancing and frisking togither, (like so many fairies, or furies...
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Connors, Donald F. “The Children of the Forest.” In Thomas Morton, pp. 36-57. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1969.
[In the following excerpt from his full-length study of Morton, Connors evaluates Morton's depiction of Native Americans in New English Canaan.]
Morton's subject—the Indians of the New England region—in the first of the three books that comprise the New English Canaan was a favorite one with reporters of his time. Nineteen of the twenty short chapters in Book I are filled with speculations about their language and their ancestors, tales of their powwows and chieftains, and observations on their beliefs, their way of life, and their tractable nature. It is a warm, interested, and compassionate report of them. A distinguishing note in this division of Morton's work is his insistence on the simple, contented life of the natives and on their basic goodness and humanity.
Morton tells us that his experiences in New England taught him that two sorts of people lived there: “the one Christians, the other Infidels; these [the “Infidels,” or Indians] I found most full of humanity, and more friendly than the other” (123). The humanity of the natives is a theme which he employs again in the third book of the New English Canaan to show, as he says at one point, that “the uncivilized people are more just than the civilized” (270). In Book I, however, he...
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SOURCE: Arner, Robert D. “Mythology and the Maypole of Merrymount: Some Notes on Thomas Morton's ‘Rise Oedipus.’” Early American Literature VI, No. 2 (Fall 1971): 156-64.
[In the following essay, Arner examines how the poem “Rise Oedipus,” which appears in New English Canaan, adapts classical mythology to present an allegorical description of the revels at Ma-re Mount.]
Well over three hundred years ago, Thomas Morton composed several poems characterized by one of his contemporaries, Governor William Bradford, as “sundry rhymes and verses, some tending to lasciviousness, and others to the detraction and scandal of some persons, which he affixed to … [the] idle or idol maypole.”1 Morton seems to have been particularly proud of one of these verses and challenged all “Separatists” in the Bay Colony area to explicate it. They failed in the attempt, as Morton reports in The New English Canaan, and, perhaps emboldened by their failure, he rhetorically extended his challenge to Oedipus, that great unriddler of antiquity, whom he summoned in his opening lines:
Rise Oedipus, and, if thous canst, unfould What meanes Caribdis underneath the mould, When Scilla sollitary on the ground (Sitting in forme of Niobe) was found, Till Amphitrites Darling did acquaint Grim Neptune with the Tenor of her plaint, And caused him send forth Triton with the sound Of...
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SOURCE: Arner, Robert D. “Pastoral Celebration and Satire in Thomas Morton's New English Canaan.” Criticism XVI, No. 3 (Summer 1974): 217-31.
[In the following essay, Arner contends that the form of New English Canaan is based on festive folk rituals which ultimately derive from ancient Greek phallic ceremonies.]
Thomas Morton's New English Canaan, a work seldom regarded seriously either by historians or literary critics,1 is admittedly a troublesome book. As history, it is too literary for historians to trust; Morton's prejudices against the American Pilgrims and Puritans generate much of the wit, irony, and vivid imagery of the volume, particularly in the third section, but they also lead the author to invent episodes, distort chronology, and qualify the reliability of his narrative in a variety of other ways. As literature, on the other hand, the book presents a different set of problems. It is, to begin with, a literary hybrid of a kind fairly common in colonial American writing, mixing pastoral and promotional modes, satire and straight travel narrative, poetry and prose in a fashion that requires constant readjustment of critical perspectives. Further, the variety of Morton's intentions and emphases is responsible for a sharp clash in tone and imagery between parts one and two, which are simultaneously factual reports of New England's natural resources and poetic...
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SOURCE: Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. “Thomas Morton, Historian.” The New England Quarterly L, No. 4 (December 1977): 660-64.
[In the following essay, Kupperman contends that though the accuracy of Morton's comments in New English Canaan regarding the Pilgrims' treatment of the Indians have been discounted because of his conflicts with the Pilgrims, careful study of his observations shows them to be similar to those of modern historians and demonstrates that his insights about early New England life should be taken more seriously.]
Although the record of English treatment of the American Indians during the earliest years of colonization is dismal, historians have always been glad to point to one bright spot—the record of Plymouth colony. John Demos, the social historian of seventeenth-century Plymouth, writes of the “impressive” record of forty years of “peace, even of amity” between Pilgrims and Indians.1 Howard Peckham speaks of the Pilgrims as “good neighbors,” because they “wanted nothing so much as to be left alone.”2 David Bushnell's “The Treatment of the Indians in Plymouth Colony” strikes a similar note.3
Cracks have appeared in this happy picture. Francis Jennings has recently pointed out that historians have preferred to ignore the reconstruction of the events leading up to the Wessagusset incident presented by George...
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SOURCE: Drinnon, Richard. “The Maypole of Merry Mount: Thomas Morton & the Puritan Patriarchs.” The Massachusetts Review XXI, No. 2 (Summer 1980): 382-410.
[In the following essay, Drinnon finds New English Canaan to be an authentic and singular effort of the European imagination to accept Native Americans and the American surroundings on their own terms, and regards Morton as part of a countertradition that continues to be manifested in American social life.]
The devil would never cease to disturb our peace, and to raise up instruments, one after another.
John Winthrop, Journal, December 1638
In May 1968 Robert Lowell's play Endecott and the Red Cross opened at the American Place Theatre in New York. One of a trilogy called The Old Glory, it appeared at just the right time. That was the spring of the Columbia University sit-ins and, across the Atlantic, of the insurrectionary Paris May-days. That Easter, a half-block from Lowell's apartment in the West Sixties, Central Park danced with Indian-clad hippies and yippies making merry. On television the Vietnam Show dragged on, while half a world away U.S. soldiers and marines complained bitterly about an enemy “who would not stand up and fight” but, elusive as the play of shadows, glided back into the jungles and villages of what American...
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SOURCE: Shea, Daniel B. “‘Our Professed Old Adversary’: Thomas Morton and the Naming of New England.” Early American Literature 23, No. 1 (Spring 1988): 52-69.
[In the following essay, Shea argues that Morton's failure to be taken seriously as a writer of literature is another effect of the triumph of Puritan ideology and the discourse of Puritanism, which silenced other voices that sought to shape the American consciousness.]
No less than love and war, literary history has its winners and losers. The triumphant ideology in colonial America was Puritan, and the discourse of Puritanism, as Sacvan Bercovitch has very fully demonstrated,1 not only dominated its own time but continued to supply the national lexicon long after the power of Puritanism had waned. It follows that the triumphant text is much studied among us and that the historical hegemony of Puritanism would become in our time the hegemony of Puritan studies in early American literature. Yet a loser's case can be instructive, if only to remind us of the ephemerality of all language, including that in which literary history is written.
Among those whose speech, for any purpose of discourse, the New England Puritans silenced, the most interesting case perennially has been Thomas Morton, like many American writers after him the author of a single book, great in its aspirations and greatly flawed. Morton's...
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SOURCE: Murphy, Edith. “‘A Rich Widow, Now to Be Tane Up or Laid Downe’: Solving The Riddle of Thomas Morton's ‘Rise Oedipeus.’” William and Mary Quarterly, third series LIII, No. 4 (October 1996): 755-68.
[In the following essay, Murphy conducts a “gender analysis” of the poem “Rise Oedipus” in New English Canaan. In the poem, as in the book as a whole, Murphy contends, the land represents a widow, “her deceased husband the Indians, and her new husband the Pilgrims,” who are weak and incompetent. Morton presents himself as the “virile lover who has all the masculine qualities the new husband lacks,” she notes.]
On May 1, 1627, Thomas Morton and his men erected a Maypole at Mt. Wollaston, formerly Passonagessit, in Massachusetts Bay. The eighty-foot pole, with a pair of buck horns attached near the top, stood on a hill overlooking the ocean in what is now Quincy, Massachusetts, in sight of ships in the bay. In Morton's words, “it stood as a faire sea marke for directions; how to finde out the way to mine Hoste of Ma-re Mount.”1 The pole challenged Plymouth Colony's control of the area by representing the pagan practices of traditional English culture. Governor William Bradford sputtered with disgust: “They also set up a maypole, drinking and dancing about it many days together, inviting the Indian women for their consorts, dancing and frisking together...
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Adams, Charles Francis. Three Episodes of Massachusetts History, 5th edition, Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1896.
Contains generally unfavorable references to Morton and his role in New England history, and sympathetic commentary on the Puritan settlers.
Banks, Charles Edward. “Thomas Morton of Merry Mount.” Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings 58 (1925): 147-93.
Contains a number of Morton's legal papers in a discussion that is very sympathetic to Morton.
Connors, Donald Francis. “Thomas Morton of Merry Mount: His First Arrival in New England.” American Literature 11, No. 2 (May 1939): 160-66.
Suggests that Morton arrived in New England not in 1622, as stated in New English Canaan, but in 1624.
Galinsky, Hans. “History and the Colonial American Humorist: Thomas Morton and The Burwell Papers.” In Forms and Functions of History in American Literature: Essays in Honor of Ursula Brumm, edited by Winfried Fluck, Jürgen Peper, and Willi Paul Adams, pp. 21-43. Berlin: Eric Schmidt Verlag, 1981.
Comparative study of the use of humor in Morton's New English Canaan and John Cotton's The Burwell Papers.
Dempsey, Jack. “Reading the Revels: The Riddle of May Day in New English Canaan.”...
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