Biography (Dictionary of World Biography: The 17th and 18th Centuries)
Article abstract: A genuine revolutionary, Thomas Jefferson was one of the early and effective leaders of the movement to overthrow British rule in North America; he then labored to create a free, prosperous, enlightened, and agrarian republic.
The man generally considered the first thoroughgoing democrat in United States history began life as a Virginia aristocrat. His father, Peter Jefferson, had indeed come from yeoman stock but commended himself to the upper class as an expert surveyor, reliable county officer, and energetic planter. Peter Jefferson then joined that upper class by marrying Jane Randolph. From his parents, Thomas Jefferson inherited wealth, status, and a tradition of public service.
Educated at first in private schools kept by Anglican clergymen William Douglas and James Maury, Jefferson descended to Williamsburg in 1760, to study at the College of William and Mary. A proficient student, he completed the requirements for his degree within two years but stayed on to read law with George Wythe, an uncommonly learned and humane jurist. In his student years, Jefferson was frequently a guest, along with his favorite professor, William Small, and Wythe, in the governor’s palace. Admitted to the bar in 1767, the young bachelor attorney became acquainted with all of Virginia by the strenuous but interesting practice of attending the quarter sessions of county courts. Jefferson soon stood among the leaders of his profession.
Entering the House of Burgesses in 1769, Jefferson already owned more than twenty-five hundred acres inherited from his father, who had died in 1757. His marriage to the young widow Martha Wayles Skelton doubled his property in 1772, and the death of Martha’s father in 1774 doubled it again, while increasing his slaves to more than two hundred. The Wayles inheritance also brought a large indebtedness, but in 1774, Jefferson might count himself the most fortunate of men, with a lovely wife and a robust baby daughter, a personal fortune, and a position near the top of Virginia’s society and politics. He was imposing in appearance, standing over six feet tall, with plentiful red hair, strong features, and an attitude of vitality and interest. Yet he was also shy and avoided public appearances whenever he could; he was at his very best in the cordial intimacy of the drawing room or the dining table.
In 1774, Virginia chose to support Massachusetts against the assaults of the so-called Coercive or Intolerable Acts. To that support, Jefferson contributed the first of his major political writings, A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). In 1775, he was a delegate of Virginia in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, supporting George Washington’s newly formed Continental Army in the defense of Massachusetts. Here, for a few months, Jefferson’s sentiments were too radical for the majority, but when independence seemed all but inevitable in June, 1776, Congress placed him (with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams) on the special committee to draft a Declaration of Independence. Though slightly amended in committee and again on the floor of Congress, the Declaration of Independence is largely Jefferson’s work.
For the next several years, Jefferson avoided Continental service, preferring the considerable scene of action near his growing family and estate. With Wythe and Edmund Pendleton he drew up a new legal code for the state. He also prepared a plan for the gradual ending of slavery but declined to bring it before the House of Delegates. He also postponed his plans for a general scheme of education and for the separation of church and state. Elected governor in 1779, he found that office an ordeal. To the minor confusion of moving government from Williamsburg to Richmond was added the major trauma of a full-scale British military invasion of his state. Just before Jefferson’s second term ended in June, 1781, he had to flee into the Blue Ridge to escape a raiding party sent to Monticello expressly to capture him.
Already discouraged by his last months as governor, Jefferson was cast into the deepest depression of his life by his wife’s death in 1782. He never remarried, but he did accept reappointment to the Congress, where, in 1783 and 1784, he worked on the monetary system of the United States, basing it on the plentiful Spanish dollar and applying the rational decimal system to fractional coins. He also drafted a comprehensive scheme for organizing the western territories of the United States. He introduced the idea of rectangular surveys and proposed local self-government from the start. His division of the terrain into eighteen jurisdictions, while convenient for the participatory democracy he had in view, would have long delayed statehood for any of them. A provision barring the introduction of slavery after 1800 failed to win the support of the nine states required under the Articles of Confederation, but Congress did adopt Jefferson’s plan, replacing it instead with the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Meanwhile, Jefferson had accepted a diplomatic mission to France; in 1785, he replaced the aged Benjamin Franklin as minister.
The five years in Europe were busy and happy. A tour of France and Northern Italy confirmed Jefferson’s architectural taste and enlarged his knowledge of agriculture. He flirted with an artistic Englishwoman, Mrs. Maria Cosway, and enjoyed visiting John Adams in England, though he did not care for English society in general. By mail he kept up with the movement to disestablish religion in Virginia, where his own bill was finally passed under the expert guidance of James Madison. He also encouraged Madison and other correspondents in their drive toward a new federal constitution. In France, he sought help against the Barbary Pirates and urged France to remove prohibitions or costly restrictions on such American commodities as tobacco and whale oil. His closest friends were liberal aristocrats such as the Marquis de Lafayette, whose leading role in the early stages of the French Revolution Jefferson followed with interest and encouragement.
Intending a brief visit only, Jefferson returned to the United States at the end of 1789, but he promptly accepted the post of secretary of state from President Washington. After settling his two daughters in Virginia, he took up his duties in the temporary capital, New York City. There he helped bring about the trade of votes which made possible Hamilton’s federal assumption of state revolutionary war debts and the permanent location of the Federal District on the Potomac River. The government then moved, temporarily, to Philadelphia....
(The entire section is 2825 words.)
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell in Albemarle County, Virginia, the son of Jane Randolph and Peter Jefferson. He liked to emphasize his father’s frontier experiences as surveyor and cartographer instead of his family’s prominent antecedents. Educated in private schools and at the College of William and Mary, he was admitted to the bar in 1767 by his teacher, George Wythe. Throughout life, he studied agronomy, anthropology, archaeology, architecture, astronomy, biblical and legal history, botany, music, philology, and the latest scientific discoveries of his age. Between 1770 and 1810 he built Monticello, a Palladian mansion on the hilltop of his estate. He married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, and they had two daughters who attained maturity.
Jefferson was an organizer of political parties rather than an orator. His forte lay more in committee work than in personal correspondence or persuasion. In “his country” of Virginia, he served as burgess (1768-1775), delegate (1776-1779), and governor (1779-1781). His written address to the Virginia Convention of 1774 is famous as A Summary View of the Rights of British America. This natural-rights document denied Parliament’s colonial authority and any bonds other than voluntary submission to the king. It demanded free trade in products not essential to the mother country and an end of British colonial taxation. Jefferson was a principal author of the 1776 Virginia constitution, whose preamble foreshadowed the Declaration of Independence. His bills for the abolition of entails, primogeniture, and the lex talionis were accompanied by those establishing religious freedom and educational reform. All were enacted, although the last was limited to Deistic substitution of foreign languages, law, and medicine for religious curricula at William and Mary.
Jefferson’s wartime governorship was unhappy because of his reluctance to exceed constitutional authority. After the British capture of Richmond and the pursuit of the governor and legislature into the Shenandoah Valley, however, Jefferson welcomed the election of a successor with dictatorial powers. He had helped transfer the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond, and he subsequently designed the capitol after the Maison Carrée of Nîmes. To refute Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon’s and Guillaume-Thomas François de Raynal’s thesis that humans and animals degenerated in the New World, he wrote his Notes on the State of Virginia, valuable for its statistical...
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IntroductionIs the pen mightier than the sword? It certainly is in the case of Thomas Jefferson. Although Jefferson served the United States first as secretary of state, then as vice president, and finally as its third president, it is as the main writer of the Declaration of Independence that he stands out in the minds of most Americans. He alone wrote the first draft of the historic document, which was then submitted for minor revisions, presented to the Continental Congress, and quickly approved on July 4, 1776. The Declaration of Independence remains an eloquent reminder of the principles of liberty. By crafting it, Jefferson indelibly affected not only his country but the entire world.
- Jefferson was born into a well-to-do Virginian family in 1743. He received an excellent classical education that included the study of Latin and Greek as well as mathematics, philosophy, and metaphysics. His study of philosopher John Locke played a major role in making Jefferson a strong advocate of personal liberty.
- Jefferson is one of only two presidents to serve as secretary of state, vice president, and president (the other is Martin Van Buren).
- One of the most important events during Jefferson’s presidency was the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the United States in 1803. After the purchase of the territory, Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the land.
- Jefferson’s life sometimes contradicted his ideals. He was a devout supporter of liberty who stated his moral outrage against slavery, yet he was also a slave owner.
- Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, fifty years to the day after the acceptance and reading of the Declaration of Independence.
Bibliography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Holt, 1948. This is still the best introduction to the place of Jefferson in the American Enlightenment.
Ellis, Joseph J. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997.
Ferling, John E. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. While not always complimentary to his subjects, Ferling presents a solid view of how these three men contributed to shaping a revolution. Maps and bibliography.
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