Thomas Holcroft 1745-1809
English novelist, playwright, translator, critic, and poet.
Thomas Holcroft was a novelist, dramatist, translator, and critic of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, chiefly known as one of the most prominent and influential Jacobin authors. He gained fame as a political reformer, a peer of William Godwin, and a member of the artisans tried for treason in response to their alleged association with the Society for Constitutional Information. He was also well known to his contemporaries for his role in securing the publication of Thomas Paine's Rights of Man. Twentieth century critics, however, have increasingly directed their attention away from Holcroft's political writings and have concentrated instead on his literary output. Scholars have argued that in his plays and in his novels Holcroft experimented with both content and form, believing that the purpose of literature was to educate and expand the thinking of the public. His works featured not only his ideas about social and political reform, but also strong moral messages. Holcroft's most highly-regarded works include his novels Anna St. Ives: A Novel (1792), The Adventures of Hugh Trevor: A Novel (1794, 1797) and his play The Road to Ruin: A Comedy (1792). In addition, Holcroft is known for introducing the melodrame, a form of French theater featuring dialogue, music, dancing and pantomime, to English audiences.
Holcroft was born 10 December 1745 to Thomas Holcroft, a cobbler, and his wife, Sarah. By the time Holcroft was six years old his father had taught him to read. During his youth he read the Bible, the sensational novels popular with the lower classes, and pious religious literature; as an adult, though, Holcroft rejected these forms of literature and attempted to create alternate forms for his fellow working class readers. In the 1750s Holcroft's father abandoned his work as a cobbler to take up peddling in the surrounding countryside, and the family accompanied him on his travels. As Holcroft came of age, he grew tired of the nomadic lifestyle and took a position as a stable boy near the Newmarket racetrack. In his leisure, he spent his time learning mathematics and playing the violin. He worked in a number of jobs before he embarked on a career as a traveling actor. Through his work, Holcroft was exposed to the conditions of the working poor across England as well as to the influence of the thespian world. He began writing for the theater after he secured a position in London, but his first plays were not successful. During this time, he met many important literary figures, such as Elizabeth Inchbald, who were impressed by Holcroft's thinking and political ideologies. In 1780 Holcroft published the novel Alwyn; or, The Gentleman Comedian, and the following year he wrote his first successful play, Duplicity: A Comedy (1781). The period between 1782 and 1794 was a fruitful and significant time in Holcroft's career, a period during which he wrote his two most highly regarded novels, Anna St. Ives and The Adventures of Hugh Trevor, as well as three influential plays: The School for Arrogance: A Comedy (1791), The Road to Ruin: A Comedy (1792), and The Deserted Daughter: A Comedy (1795). In addition, Holcroft was by this time a noted translator, focusing on exposing the English to European writings on the Enlightenment. Besides translating such works as Voltaire's memoirs, Holcroft translated Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais's Marriage de Figaro into a tremendously successful English play The Follies of a Day; or, The Marriage of Figaro (1785).
Influenced by the mood of political reform prevalent in Europe in the 1780s and 90s, Holcroft became known and respected for his revolutionary ideology. His support of the French Revolution, his cry for social reform, and his criticism of the court government had earned him the respect of many fellow Jacobins. He was instrumental in aiding Thomas Paine in publishing The Rights of Man, a rebuttal to Edmund's Burke's rebuke of revolutionary politics. Holcroft was an influential friend of William Godwin, helping to shape the author's religious, social, and political philosophies. In 1794 as part of a group of artisans including Thomas Hardy, John Thelwell, and John Horne Tooke, Holcroft was charged with treason for his alleged association with the Society for Constitutional Information. He was acquitted without a trial, thus being denied a forum in which to defend himself to the public, a fact that angered Holcroft. He responded by publishing A Narrative of Facts, Relating to a Prosecution for High Treason; Including the Address to the Jury, Which the Court Refused to Hear, with Letters to the Attorney General, Lord Chief Justice Eyre, Mr. Sergent Adair, The Honorable Thomas Erskine, and Vicary Gibbs Esq. and the Defence the Author Had Prepared, if He Had Been Brought to Trial (1795) and A Letter to the Right Honorable William Windham on the Intemperance and Dangerous Tendency of His Public Conduct (1795). However, his public reputation did suffer. Anti-Jacobins persecuted him, forcing his plays to fold and impeding him from earning a living. His later life was spent in a quest to solve his financial troubles. Battling ill health, Holcroft was in the midst of writing his memoirs when he died on 23 March 1809. William Hazlitt completed the memoirs in the year following Holcroft's death and donated the profits to Holcroft's family.
Holcroft was a prolific writer, the author of more than a dozen plays, numerous essays of literary criticism, a travel account, a volume of poetry, and five novels. However, regardless of the genre, Holcroft's works share a common purpose: to expose the public to his reform ideology and to provide moral encouragement to his readers. Throughout his life, Holcroft was convinced of humanity's ability to improve itself through great literature. While his plays were often written to appeal to the masses, Holcroft crafted his novels carefully to disseminate his views on the immoral chaos of the English government, the need for social reform, and the importance of rejecting the frivolous and self-indulgent way of life. Several of Holcroft's works center upon the destructiveness of gambling. In the play Duplicity, Sir Henry Portland loses all his property including his sister's dowry while gambling. Confronted with his own folly, he is saved when Mr. Osborne, the holder of his debts and in love with Portland's sister, returns the property. Set against the failures of middle class ideology, Road to Ruin features a similar theme. However, Holcroft's best known and most highly regarded works, the novels Anna St. Ives and The Adventures of Hugh Trevor, focus even more strongly on the issues of morality and the need for reform. In Anna St. Ives, Holcroft presents utopian notions of social justice through his two main characters: Anna, a member of the landed gentry who supports social reform and equality, and her beloved, the poor but honest Frank Henley. Confronted by the crass, destructive, and arrogant Coke Clifton, Anna successfully reforms him through her fortitude despite the difficulties he inflicts on Henley. The novel ends happily with the two lovers reconciled. Holcroft's intent to expose the moral decay of contemporary society is similar in Hugh Trevor, but his method is different. Holcroft writes a satirical picaresque novel about the efforts of a virtuous young man to resist the temptations and corrupting forces of society as he attempts to secure employment. In Hugh Trevor Holcroft explores the problems of numerous institutions from the law to business and promotes his view that crime results from circumstances and not from character flaws. Both novels are heavily based on earlier examples of literature: Anna St. Ives on Samuel Richardson's Clarissa and Hugh Trevor on Henry Fielding's Tom Jones as well as the works of Tobias Smollett.
During Holcroft's life, critics were not always favorable to his work, particularly his plays. Many of his plays closed after less than a week, a trend which intensified after his treason trial and the resulting persecution by anti-Jacobin forces. Holcroft was forced to write anonymously or suffer from critical and public rejection of his plays. However, a 1794 review of his novel The Adventures of Hugh Trevor praises Holcroft's ability to portray a wide variety of characters realistically. Through the following century, Holcroft's literary career was ignored; he was remembered as a political reformer. However, Elbridge Colby's scholarship on Holcroft in the 1920s—an extensive revision of William Hazlitt's memoirs—elevated Holcroft's stature as a novelist and playwright, sparking a new interest in his literary career. Some critics have continued to decry Holcroft's impact upon literature. Janie Teissedou writes: “Of course, it is quite normal that Holcroft should not be remembered as an outstanding novelist, since his novels are most of the time defective on the literary level. …” Most scholars agree that the quality of Holcroft's work is wildly uneven; however, other scholars contend that Holcroft was an influential writer who consciously shaped the novel in new ways. Critics such as Virgil R. Stallbaumer and Gary Kelly argue that in representing the ideologies of the Jacobin movement, Holcroft sought to make his novels venues of moral instruction, as well as to advocate political and social reform. They argue that with the exception of Alwyn, all of Holcroft's novels contain a strong moral lesson, especially Anna St. Ives which was intended to teach female readers “fortitude.” Other reviewers praise Holcroft's realistic and moving portrayals of the English lower classes, noting that his early life of poverty made him uniquely qualified among his fellow reformers to speak to the issues of the poor. However, other scholars state that Holcroft was a victim of contemporary thought and culture despite his advocacy for free thought. Anne McWhir argues that in The Adventures of Hugh Trevor Holcroft retained the cultural idioms of the day which restricted the choices and freedom of women. As she puts it, “ … Holcroft's tale grows maudlin in its conventional morality.” In a mixed critique of Anna St. Ives, Mary Wollstonecroft stated that the title character's behavior is “so remote from everything that we observe in real life, that we must pronouce it highly improbable, if not wholly unnatural.”
However, other scholars testify to Holcroft's talent as a writer. Stallbaumer notes Holcroft's skill as a satirist; Jerry C. Beasley states that the best of Holcroft's works are original and highly readable, particularly for the time period; and Gary Kelly writes: “With the background and humour of Diderot and the skepticism of Voltaire he combined the studious generalizing mind of Montesquieu and the erratic passionate nature of Rousseau.”
Elegies: I. On the Death of Samuel Foote, Esq. II. On Age (poetry) 1777
Manthorn the Enthusiast (novel) 1778-79
The Crisis; or, Love and Fear (drama) 1778
Alwyn; or, The Gentleman Comedian. 2 vols. [with William Nicholson] (novel) 1780
A Plain and Succinct Narrative of the Late Riots and Disturbances in the Cities of London and Westminster, and Borough of Southwark … with an Account of the Commitment of Lord George Gordon to the Tower and Anecdotes of His Life (essay) 1780
Duplicity: A Comedy (drama) 1781; revised as The Mask’d Friend, 1796
The Trial of the Hon. George Gordon at the Court of King's Bench, Taken in Shorthand, as William Vincent (essay) 1781
The Family Picture; or, Domestic Dialogues on Amiable Subjects. 2 vols. (short stories) 1783
Human Happiness; or, The Sceptic: A Poem (poetry) 1783
The Follies of a Day; or, The Marriage of Figaro [translator; from the play by Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais] (drama) 1784
The Noble Peasant: A Comic Opera, in Three Acts (drama) 1784
The Choleric Fathers: A Comic Opera (drama) 1785
Seduction: A Comedy (drama) 1787
The German Hotel: A Comedy [adaptor; from...
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SOURCE: An introduction to A Bibliography of Thomas Holcroft, The New York Public Library, 1922, pp. 7-31.
[In the following excerpt, Colby provides an overview of Holcroft's writings, supplementing Hazlitt's biography with newly available information.]
It seems that the hour has come for a fuller and clearer consideration of the life of Thomas Holcroft. A hundred years have passed since Hazlitt published Holcroft's narrative of his own boyhood, and supplemented it with such facts as were then available among the notes, papers, diary, letters, and published writings. It may, of course, appear a bit presumptuous to try to add to the value of Hazlitt's Memoirs,1 especially since the original editor enjoys a reputation as one of the best essayists of the nineteenth century, whose judgments of contemporaries have in so many cases stood the test of generations of critics and whose writings are so uniformly remarkable for ease and decision. Yet times change, opinions vary, and each age must in some measure revise the literary evaluations of its predecessors. And each age is, almost certainly, better qualified to paint a more complete portrait, for as time goes on, new materials become available for biographical use; official documents are freed from the seal of secrecy; biographies of contemporaries reveal new facts; undreamed-of letters drift into the museums and libraries; and private...
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SOURCE: An introduction toThe Life of Thomas Holcroft, Constable & Company, 1925, pp. xv-lv.
[In the following excerpt, Colby surveys Holcroft's life and works.]
Tom Moore once said that he rated the autobiographies of Holcroft and of Gifford “the two most interesting specimens in the language.” A hundred years have passed since the remark was made by Moore, and the relative merits of the present volume may be less. Yet its absolute and intrinsic value is still very great. As a novelist, Holcroft was undistinguished. As a playwright, he was commonplace, in spite of undoubted successes, in spite of the distinction attaching to his name by his piracy of Le Mariage de Figaro, in spite of his fortuitous translation of Pixerécourt's Coelina into the first English melodrama, and in spite of the repute attained by his comedy of The Road to Ruin. As a radical revolutionary, he believed more in talk than in action, and his chief claim to political fame rests on the fact that he was indicated for high treason in 1794 along with Thomas Hardy, Horne Tooke, and John Thelwall, whose trials were the sensation of the period. As a translator of Continental literature, he was able, discriminating, successful, voluminous, and characteristic of the reciprocal literary influences of his time. Mary Russell Mitford has said, substantially: “If ever one happens to pick up a translation of a...
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SOURCE: “Thomas Holcroft: A Satirist in the Stream of Sentimentalism” in Thomas Holcroft: Radical and Man of Letters, Johns Hopkins University, 1936, pp. 31-62.
[In the following essay, which originally appeared in the March 1936 issue of ELH: A Journal of English Literary History, Stallbaumer traces Holcroft's development as a dramatist, outlining the way in which he was shaped by the popular demand for sentimentality.]
When Thomas Holcroft came to town, like Moliére, after years of experience as a strolling player, he felt he was ready to turn playwright; for he had been “highly approved in the country.” During his years of apprenticeship from 1770 to 1781, he had no doubt learned what every actor and playwright experiences: that success comes from giving the public what it wants. But to cater to popular taste was difficult during these decades; for the London critics and audiences were not only vehemently censorious, but of divided tastes. William Nicholson, a lifelong friend of Holcroft, in the prolog written for Holcroft's first published play, Duplicity, left this picture of the shoals upon which the aspiring playwright might easily meet disaster:
Long may his hunger last, who pines for fame, Who seeks that hard-earn'd morsel call'd—a name! A morsel clos'd within a scaly guard Of critic shells, obdurate, rough, and hard! Well fare the bard, whose fortitude,...
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SOURCE: “Holcroft: A Radical Novelist” in Politics in Literature in the Nineteenth Century, Editions Universitaires, 1974, pp. 11-30.
[In the essay below, Teissedou notes evidence of Holcroft's revolutionary activities and views in his life and works.]
The mere mention of English radicalism immediately brings to one's mind the memory of such great men and women as William Godwin, Thomas Paine and Mary Wollstonecraft. They are supposed to be, and undoubtedly were, the leaders of that great movement, which started at the end of the 18th century and developed throughout the 19th century. Yet, it would be most unfair to remember those names only, since other militants not only existed, but also proved to be quite influential in the making of English radicalism, though they are now, at best, considered as minor figures, or even worse, entirely forgotten. Among those thus unjustly neglected stands Thomas Holcroft, the playwright and novelist who, in spite of the very active part he played in the development of the movement, has been until recently completely ignored by most of the historians and critics who have written on English radicalism. To give just one example, in such a valuable book as that of S. Maccoby,1 Holcroft's name is not even once mentioned. Maccoby does speak of the charge of high treason that was brought against Holcroft and eleven other radicals, but in a very general way,...
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SOURCE: “The Cool World of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Thomas Holcroft, Hyperhack,”The Wordsworth Circle, Vol. XI, No. 4, Autumn, 1980, pp. 212-14.
[In the following essay, Zall summarizes Holcroft's career, highlighting his high level of productivity and many hardships.]
Hazlitt edited his memoirs and more recently the Oxford Press exhumed two of his Jacobinical novels, else the voice of Thomas Holcroft would no longer be heard in the land. How different from his own time when that voice was hard to avoid. After Coleridge met Holcroft in person, someone asked how he had struck him, and Coleridge quipped, “I felt myself in more danger of being struck by him.”1 Later, he described Holcroft at full tide: “Fierce, hot petulant, the very High priest of Atheism.” He called him “High” perhaps in jest since Holcroft was short and slight. What did he think of Dr. Priestley? “‘There is a Petitisse in his mind.—Hartley—Psha! Godwin, Sir! is a thousand times a better Metaphysician!’” (CL 1:215).
Godwin, as a matter of record, owed a deep debt to Holcroft's stimulus and excitement and friendship.2 Even though Godwin's idea of a friend was anyone who hasn't done anything to you lately, Holcroft's exuberance was not easily deterred. All who met him agreed that he did not argue—he declaimed. Anyone who knew his background should not have...
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SOURCE: “The Novelist” in Thomas Holcroft: Literature and Politics in England in the Age of the French Revolution, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1995, pp. 71-98.
[In the excerpt below, Rosenblum traces the development of Holcroft as a novelist and argues that he deserves recognition for his experimental work in the novel, particularly in Anna St. Ives, Hugh Trevor, and parts of Bryan Perdue.]
I. THE NOVEL AS THEATER
Holcroft's treatment of the novel was similar to that of the drama not only in theory but also in practice. It is worthwhile to examine some of these general similarities before turning to an investigation of individual works.
Holcroft's novels contain much of the theatrical. Whether Holcroft utilizes the first person narrative—as he does in Manthorn, the Enthusiast, The Adventures of Hugh Trevor, and the Memoirs of Bryan Perdue—or the epistolary mode of Alwyn, or The Gentleman Comedian and Anna St. Ives, he allows at least the main character to present himself directly to the audience. As with drama, the author remains behind the scene; the reader confronts the character immediately and, on the basis of that confrontation, must decide for himself how to react to that character. This immediacy was an effect for which Holcroft strove; as he wrote in Manthorn, “I think the language of...
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Baine, Rodney M. “The Early Novels.” Thomas Holcroft and the Revolutionary Novel, pp. 6-19. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1965.
Juxtaposes the advocacy for free-thought in Manthorn, the Enthusiast with the amusing, but less cerebral, Alwyn, or the Gentleman Comedian.
Faulkner, Peter. Introduction to Anna St. Ives, by Thomas Holcroft, pp. vii-xiii. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Argues that Holcroft attempted to infuse Anna St. Ives with new structural elements and political ideology.
Kelly, Gary. “Thomas Holcroft.” In The English Jacobin Novel: 1780-1805, pp. 114-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Examines the literary and political forces that influenced Holcroft in writing Anna St. Ives and The Adventures of Hugh Trevor.
McCracken, David. “Hazlitt and a Case of Charitable Journalism.” Keats-Shelley Journal: Keats, Shelley, Byron, Hunt, and Their Circles XXVIII (1979): 26-7.
Recounts William Hazlitt's writing of Holcroft's biography shortly after Holcroft's death.
McWhir, Anne. “Revising Rowe's The Fair penitent: Goldsmith, Holcroft, Wollstonecraft.” In Transactions of the Eighth International Congress on the Enlightenment, pp. 827-30. Oxford: University of Oxford,...
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