Thomas Chatterton 1752-1770
(Also wrote under the pseudonym of Probus) English poet, satirist, dramatist, and journalist.
Thomas Chatterton is best known today for the controversy surrounding his fabrication or “forgery” of both the life and poetry of a medieval priest called Thomas Rowley, and for his short, intense life and lonely death as a suicide. Considering the brevity of his life, Chatterton's literary output was remarkable. But perhaps more significant than his own work was his effect on the creative minds that succeeded him. Writers of the Romantic period as well as writers and painters of the Pre-Raphaelite era were inspired by Chatterton, whom they revered as a tragic prodigy or, in the words of the poet William Wordsworth, a “marvellous boy.”
Chatterton was born in the commercial port of Bristol, England. His father, a schoolmaster and church clerk, died two months before Chatterton's birth, leaving his young wife almost penniless with two children to raise on a seamstress's small income. Solitary and moody as a child, Chatterton received most of his early education from his sister, who taught him to read. He subsequently developed an avid curiosity for subjects ranging from English heraldry to music, metaphysics, and astronomy. At the age of twelve Chatterton attended a local charity school. Although the unimaginative curriculum there soon extinguished his eagerness for formal education, it is likely that the archaic atmosphere and medieval regimen of the school, once a Carmelite priory, fed a fascination for the past that underlies much of Chatterton's work.
At fourteen Chatterton left school and was apprenticed to a Bristol attorney named John Lambert. Chatterton disliked his apprenticeship and—much to Lambert's annoyance—frequently neglected his legal copying to write poetry. During this period Chatterton had several satirical commentaries published pseudonymously in Bristol and London newspapers. His most enjoyable hours, however, were spent in Bristol's Church of Saint Mary Redcliffe. For several generations members of Chatterton's family had served as sextons in the church, and like his father Chatterton was drawn to the church's old records and parchments. The “Rowley poems” were a direct result of this interest. In 1768 Chatterton claimed to have discovered these apparently medieval literary poems—complete with archaic language, heraldic drawings and antiqued parchments—supposedly written by a fifteenth-century Bristol priest named Thomas Rowley. In fact, Rowley, his poems, and the accompanying documents proved to be inventions of Chatterton's; the only genuinely historical personage mentioned in the documents was William Canynge—a merchant and mayor of Bristol who helped build the Church of Saint Mary Redcliffe. According to Chatterton's fabrication, Canynge was also Rowley's patron and frequent correspondent. At first, the Rowley poems were acclaimed as a historic find. Chatterton even submitted some of the documents to the antiquarian and writer Horace Walpole who was himself initially fooled by their apparent authenticity. Walpole and others began to become suspicious, however, once they learned how young and poorly educated the “discoverer” of the documents was; Chatterton's Rowley poems were subsequently returned to him without further reply.
Embittered but determined, Chatterton left Bristol in 1770 to try to make a living as a writer in London. Although he published some satires and articles—and even one Rowley poem entitled “Elinoure and Juga” (1769)—Chatterton became increasingly impoverished. In what seems to have been a fit of despair, Chatterton poisoned himself with arsenic in his rented room in London just a few months before his eighteenth birthday.
Although Chatterton's Rowley series, set during the reign of Edward IV, is not in fact the account of an actual priest, as Chatterton claimed, it does have a historical personage—William Canynge—as part of its focus. In the Rowley poems Chatterton magnifies Canynge's importance, presenting him not only as benefactor to the Church of Saint Mary Redcliffe and to the fictional priest Rowley, but also as a patron of the arts surrounded by a circle of poets and painters whose names Chatterton invented or culled from Saint Mary's tombstones. Within his chronicles the fictitious Rowley praises Canynge's munificence and sketches the colorful activities of Church feast days, the vigor of peasant life, and the pageantry of the nobility—all against a background of Saxon history. Through Rowley's chronicles Chatterton also explores the actions of traditional heroes—warriors, rulers, and saints—and defines the merchant of character, such as Canynge, as one who uses his wealth for good, much as traditional heroes had employed social rank, physical prowess, or saintly vocation. Significantly, the merchant of character was a hero for whom there was no strong literary precedent. In “A Brief Account of William Cannings from the Life of Thomas Rowlie Preeste,” Chatterton develops the role of Canynge by establishing a relationship between the merchant and Rowley. Their friendship begins with Canynge's patronage of Rowley and grows as Canynge recognizes Rowley's taste and artistry, which are crucial to the designing and building of Saint Mary's. A defining element in the relationship between Rowley and Canynge is money, which measures mutual esteem rather than greed. The style of “A Brief Account” is the same as that of many of the Rowley works: a gossipy, relaxed narrative summary with subtle comic touches.
Chatterton's satiric verses, by contrast, are traditional in format and address society's iniquities—a subject foreign to the Rowley poems. In works such as “The Whore of Babylon” and “Kew Gardens” Chatterton targets influential members of ruling political and religious institutions, indicting the preferments and corruption which he believed had contributed to his own hardship. In poems ranging from playful satire to bitter invective, Chatterton assumes the conventional but far from dispassionate stance of outspoken freethinker—a pose which, while allowing him to vent his grievances, required less innovation than did the Rowley series.
After Chatterton's death the Rowley poems generated heated debate between those who did and those who did not believe in their authenticity. Ultimately the argument was decided in favor of scholars who judged the poems to be Chatterton's own creation, or “forgery”; as a result, most critics during the period immediately after the young writer's death saw Chatterton as morally reprehensible and untalented. This view changed in the nineteenth century, when Chatterton was mythologized first by the Romantics and later by the Pre-Raphaelites, who saw the young poet as a sensitive, tortured genius destroyed by poverty and critical opinion before he could prove himself as a writer. Indeed, Chatterton's non-Rowley poetry directly influenced the work of the Romantics, using as it does the imagery and rhythms which were to typify Romantic verse, and presenting a portrait of the poet as an intuitive, unfettered spirit in conflict with what was crass, conventional, and insensitive in society.
Today, critical assessments of Chatterton tend to moderate between the two extremes. Most modern scholars take the view that it is a fine line that separates works that have been condemned as forgeries, such as Chatterton's Rowley poems, and others that are labeled simply as fiction; Nick Groom, for one, sees the Rowley poems as calling into question the very notions of authenticiy, forgery, and the construction of history. Concerning Chatterton's poetic abilities, most scholars agree that the young writer's untimely death makes it difficult to evaluate his potential. Ivan Philips, for instance, characterizes Chatterton's verse as “uneven,” but goes on to declare: “A writer of paradox and playful irony, Chatterton—for all his immaturity—is a more sophisticated artist than his meagre and melodramatic reputation allows.” Regardless of the merits or shortcomings of Chatterton's poems, or of their “truth” or “falsity,” they remain significant for many critics because of their impact on subsequent writers. In her analysis of Chatterton's influence on John Keats, Lucy Morrison observes that “Chatterton clearly merits further examination, particularly since his texts have influenced later poets and since they actively participate within ongoing traditions.”
“Elinoure and Juga” (poetry) 1769
The Execution of Sir Charles Bawdin (poetry) 1772
Poems, Supposed to Have Been Written at Bristol, by Thomas Rowley, and Others, in the Fifteenth Century (poetry) 1777
Miscellanies in Prose and Verse (essays and poetry) 1778
The Revenge, A Burletta (drama) 1795
The Works of Thomas Chatterton. 3 vols. (poetry, prose, and letters) 1803
The Poetical Works of Thomas Chatterton. 2 vols. (poetry) 1871
The Complete Works of Thomas Chatterton (poetry, prose, letters, and drama) 1971
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SOURCE: “The Imaginative Matrix: The Rowley World and Its Documents, 1768-1769,” in Thomas Chatterton's Art: Experiments in Imagined History, Princeton University Press, 1978, pp. 44-78.
[In the following excerpt, Taylor draws a distinction between the documents Chatterton created to establish the medieval world in which the fictional Rowley supposedly lived and the pieces that the ancient poet was purported to have written; further, Taylor argues that Chatterton should not be regarded as a forger because he himself believed in validity of the world that he created.]
In autumn 1768, after the four-and-one-half-year gap in the evidence, we are faced with documents indicating that the Rowley experiment is in full career. The literary works will be the subject of the next chapter, but those works presuppose a larger idea—Chatterton's imagined world of ancient Bristol—an idea not in itself literature and never fully recorded. That imagined world and the documents written to authenticate it will be the concerns of this chapter. The reality of that world for Chatterton is poignantly shown in a reminiscence of his friend William Smith:
He was always very fond of walking in the fields, and particularly in Redcliffe meadows; and of talking about these manuscripts and reading them there. Come, he would say, you and I will take a walk in the meadow. I have got...
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SOURCE: “Thomas Chatterton—The Magnificent Prodigy,” in Mark Twain Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, Spring 1983, pp. 46-7.
[In the following essay, Mayne remarks on the variety of Chatterton's works, which include satires, hymns, essays, elegies, and a comic burletta. In addition, the critic observes that even as Chatterton forged the Rowley poems, he internalized the persona of Rowley as his own.]
Thomas Chatterton was seventeen years and nine months old when, on the 25th of August, 1770, discouraged and hopeless, he put an end to his own life. His acknowledged works, written in that short and hectic span, include long satires, elegies, verse epistles, squibs, lampoons, a comic burletta, essays and sketches. These and his life as a schoolboy, apprentice, and pretended antiquarian formed the outer shell of his fascinating character. The core was the serious and deeply emotional 15th century poet Rowley, whose connection with himself he never publicly acknowledged. It was the brilliant and sincere Rowley poems that catapulted Chatterton to literary fame and it is primarily for these creations that he is remembered. However, Chatterton's unique genius cannot be truly recognized unless his various styles are contrasted. It does not seem possible that the same person could have written the sprawling denunciation of “Kew Gardens,” the troubled lyrics of “The Resignation,” and the beautiful and touching...
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SOURCE: “Melville's ‘Borrowed Personage’: Bartleby and Thomas Chatterton,” in ESQ, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1st Quarter, 1987, pp. 35-44.
[In the following essay, Harmon argues that Chatterton's life served as the inspiration for Herman Melville's story “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” which chronicles the short, dreary life of a solitary copyist—a job that Chatterton held before leaving Bristol.]
Chatterton! methinks I hear thy name.
—Samuel Taylor Coleridge1
In his Preface to the 1966 edition of Melville's Reading, Merton M. Sealts, Jr., observed that Melville's “literary use of important surviving books remains to be studied; the implications of many known purchases and borrowings have yet to be assessed.”2 In the interim since this comment, a number of source studies have appeared,3 but none assessing Melville's possible utilization of his two annotated volumes of the poetical works of the eighteenth-century “Bristol Boy” Thomas Chatterton, which he listed in his Journal of a Visit to London and the Continent4 as “obtained in London 1849” and valued enough to have rebound near the dirty bookstall in Chancery Lane where he bought them.5 Volume One, in addition to Chatterton's poetry, includes the lengthy “Notices of His Life,” and it is here, as well as in the poetry, that a...
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SOURCE: “Introduction,” in The Family Romance of Imposter-Poet Thomas Chatterton, Macmillan-Atheneum, 1987, pp. 1-11.
[In the following essay, Kaplan provides a psychoanalytic portrait of Chatterton, describing him as a “typical, if extreme,” adolescent who was also haunted by the absence of a father who died before he was born. Chatterton, the critic notes, spent his short life searching for his father in the form of the medieval personages that he fabricated.]
Thomas Chatterton was in many ways a typical adolescent. During the seventeen years of his life, he was an exuberant player in the artistic, intellectual, religious, political, and sexual adventures we have come to expect of not-quite-adults. Even his suicide marked him as a typical, if extreme, example of the Sturm und Drang image of adolescence. But he was not merely an ordinary adolescent. He was an impostor, and indeed he grew up in the precise family environment that is believed to promote imposturousness. He was a fatherless boy raised by an adoring, idealizing mother and sister, both of whom encouraged his tendencies toward grandiosity and exceptionality. Chatterton was an artistically gifted boy whose poetic talents flourished during adolescence.
In fact I came to Chatterton through my work on adolescence. While sorting out my research and notes for the concluding sections of my last book,...
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SOURCE: “Introduction,” in The Rowley Poems by Thomas Chatterton, Woodstock Books, 1990, n.p.
[In the following essay, the anonymous critic contends that Chatterton's popularity with later writers such as John Keats and William Wordsworth had more to do with the romance surrounding Chatterton's youth, his suicide, and his forged poetry than with the specific quality of his literary output.]
In September 1819, two days after composing To autumn—‘Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness’—Keats remarks in a letter, ‘I always somehow associate Chatterton with autumn’. To which he adds, apparently without connection:
He is the purest writer in the English Language. He has no French idiom, or particles like Chaucer—’tis English Idiom in English Words. I have given up Hyperion—there were too many Miltonic inversions in it … English ought to be kept up.
The previous autumn Keats had spent nursing his dying younger brother, Tom. That he should ‘somehow associate’ the season with early death is not surprising, and Chatterton had taken arsenic at the age of seventeen. Chatterton, for Keats's generation, had the aura of myth that Keats himself was later to achieve, standing for promise, talent, genius, cut off before its time. One thing that he did not commonly stand for was purity of language. His...
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SOURCE: “Chatterton and Keats: The Need for Close Examination,” in Keats-Shelley Review, No. 10, Spring 1996, pp. 35-50.
[In the following essay, Morrison argues that John Keats's poem “To Autumn” was strongly influenced by several poetic works produced by Chatterton. The critic observes that Keats preserves but softens the death imagery present in Chatterton's evocations of autumn, and remarks that Keats tried hard to overcome Chatterton's influence in order to present his own original voice.]
John Keats's philosophical writings shed some light upon his awareness of the influence of other writers upon him, whether consciously or subconsciously. As with any writer who is also a reader, Keats does not deny that material he reads exerts an influence upon his own writings:
It is a wretched thing to confess; but it is a very fact that not one word I ever utter can be taken for granted as an opinion growing out of my identical nature—how can it when I have no nature?1
‘To Autumn’ clearly demonstrates a heavy reliance upon Thomas Chatterton's Thyrde Mynstrelle's song in the play ‘Aella’ as well as upon other Chatterton texts, including ‘Elegy to the Memory of Mr. Thomas Phillips, of Fairford,’ and ‘An Excelente Balade of Charitie.’ This connection has not been fully investigated hitherto, although critics...
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SOURCE: “Thomas Chatterton Was a Forger,” in The Yearbook of English Studies: Eighteenth-Century Lexis and Lexicography, edited by Andrew Gurr, Vol. 28, 1998, pp. 276-91.
[In the following excerpt, Groom tries to define forgery in light of the Rowley manuscript controversy that occurred after Chatterton's death; in his discussion, Groom focuses on the complex debate concerning the difference between history and fiction and the importance of authorial intention in deciding whether a document is indeed a forgery.]
At that point Don Giuseppe would explain to him at length how the work of the historian is all deception, all fraud; how there was more merit in inventing history than transcribing it from old maps and tablets and ancient tombs; how, therefore, in all honesty, their efforts deserved an immensely larger compensation than the work of a real historian, a historiographer who enjoyed the benefits of merit and status.
‘It's all fraud. History does not exist. Perhaps you think the generations of leaves that have dropped from that tree autumn after autumn still exist? The tree exists; its new leaves exist; but these leaves will also fall; in time, the tree itself will disappear—in smoke, in ashes. … What we are making, you and I, is a little fire, a little smoke with these limbs, in order to beguile people, whole...
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Warren, Murray. A Descriptive and Annotated Bibliography of Thomas Chatterton. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1977, 130 p.
Includes an introduction which looks at Chatterton's roles as forger versus poet, and lists Chatterton's own works as well as literary criticism on Chatterton and literature based on his life.
Ackroyd, Peter. Chatterton. New York: Grove Press, 1987, 234 p.
Presents an anecdotal and conjectural story of Thomas Chatterton's life.
Kelly, Linda. The Marvellous Boy: The Life and Myth of Thomas Chatterton. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971, 141 p.
Examines the details of Chatterton's life as well as the events surrounding the “Rowley Controversy”; also discusses the ways in which the later Romantic writers and Pre-Raphaelite writers and painters mythologized Chatterton.
Goldberg, Brian. “Romantic Professionalism in 1800: Robert Southey, Herbert Croft, and the Letters and Legacy of Thomas Chatterton.” ELH 63, No. 3 (Fall 1996): 681-706.
Discusses the manner in which Chatterton's fate influenced the Romantic poet Robert Southey as he set about defining writing as a profession.
Kuist, James M. “Introduction.” In...
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