Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
German Realism culminated in the late nineteenth century novels of Theodor Fontane (fawn-TAH-nuh). Born into a Huguenot family in Prussia, Fontane later portrayed that north German landscape unforgettably. Initially he chose the same profession as his father and trained as an apothecary, working in Berlin, Burg, Leipzig, and Dresden. When he was twenty-five he joined the apolitical Berlin literary society Der Tunnel Ober der Spree (tunnel over the spree), where he met weekly for many years with prominent writers and artists.
At the age of thirty, Fontane married and became a journalist, working in Germany and England for the Prussian press headquarters. At the same time he began to write ballads. Fontane was familiar with the English and Scottish ballad tradition, and he did not restrict himself to Prussian subject matter. One of his best-known ballads, “Archibald Douglas,” is about the Scotsman.
When he was forty, Fontane returned to Germany, where he worked for a decade as editor of the English section of the Kreuz-Zeitung, then from 1870 to 1889 as the theater critic for the Vossische Zeitung. During this time, Fontane, writing in a genre popular in Germany, reached a wide audience when he published four entertaining and informed accounts of his travels through the Mark Brandenburg region as well as a fifth...
(The entire section is 431 words.)
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Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Henri Theodor Fontane was born on December 30, 1819, in Neuruppin, Prussia (now in Germany). Both of his parents were of French descent, part of the French Huguenot colony that had existed in Prussia since the Edict of Potsdam of 1685. Fontane’s father was a pharmacist. During the first year of his marriage, he acquired a well-established pharmacy in Neuruppin. He was not, however, a good businessman, and he lost considerable amounts of money at the gambling table. In 1827, the elder Fontane sold his pharmacy in Neuruppin and purchased another in Swinemünde.
The Fontane family then moved to Swinemünde, a port town that was much livelier than Neuruppin. For Fontane, Swinemünde was always imbued with a certain poetic quality, and he transmuted it into the setting of a few of his works. He attended the Gymnasium (academic high school) in Neuruppin for a few years, but eventually he switched to a vocational school in Berlin and, in 1836, was apprenticed to a pharmacy there. During those years, his father’s fortunes went from bad to worse, and his parents eventually separated.
Fontane’s father’s financial failures meant that, from a very young age, Fontane had to rely almost exclusively on his own resources in order to make a living. While still an apprentice in the pharmacy in Berlin, he wrote poems and novellas, a few of which were published. In April, 1844, he began his one-year military service. During the summer of the same year, he was given leave in order to accompany a friend on a trip to England. He was fascinated by that country and particularly by the city of London. He resolved to find a way to live in England for several years.
In 1847, Fontane received his license as a first-class pharmacist, but he never practiced his profession in any consistent manner. He became active in a few literary societies in Berlin and received several assignments as a journalist. In 1850, he married Emilie Rouanet-Kummer, to...
(The entire section is 803 words.)