Thematic Apperception Test (Encyclopedia of Medicine)
The thematic apperception test (TAT) is a projective personality test that was designed at Harvard in the 1930s by Christiana D. Morgan and Henry A. Murray. Along with the MMPI and the Rorschach, the TAT is one of the most widely used psychological tests. A projective test is one in which a person's patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses are evaluated on the basis of responses to ambiguous test materials. The TAT consists of 31 pictures that depict a variety of social and interpersonal situations. The subject is asked to tell a story about each picture to the examiner. Of the 31 pictures, 10 are gender-specific while 21 others can be used with adults of either sex and with children. As of 2001, the TAT is distributed by Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.
The original purpose of the TAT was to reveal the underlying dynamics of the subject's personality, such as internal conflicts, dominant drives and interests, motives, etc. The specific motives that the TAT assesses include the need for achievement, need for power, the need for intimacy, and problem-solving abilities. After World War II, however, the TAT was used by psychoanalysts and clinicians from other schools of thought to evaluate emotionally disturbed patients. Another shift took place in the 1970s, when the...
(The entire section is 819 words.)
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Thematic Apperception Test (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders)
The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a projective measure intended to evaluate a person's patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test materials. In the case of the TAT, the ambiguous materials consist of a set of cards that portray human figures in a variety of settings and situations. The subject is asked to tell the examiner a story about each card that includes the following elements: the event shown in the picture; what has led up to it; what the characters in the picture are feeling and thinking; and the outcome of the event.
Because the TAT is an example of a projective instrumentthat is, it asks the subject to project his or her habitual patterns of thought and emotional responses onto the pictures on the cardsmany psychologists prefer not to call it a "test," because it implies that there are "right" and "wrong" answers to the questions. They consider the term "technique" to be a more accurate description of the TAT and other projective assessments.
The TAT is often administered to individuals as part of a battery, or group, of tests...
(The entire section is 2429 words.)
Thematic Apperception Test (Encyclopedia of Psychology)
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment. Suitable for ages 14-40, it is used to identify dominant drives, emotions, and conflicts, as well as levels of emotional maturity, observational skills, imagination, and creativity. The subject is shown a series of pictures, one at a time, and asked to make up a story about each one, and his or her responses are evaluated by a trained psychologist. The test is usually given in two sessions, with 10 pictures shown in each one. Sessions are untimed but generally last about an hour. (For children ages 3-10, see Children's Apperception Test.)
McCullough, Virginia. Testing and Your Child: What You Should Know About 150 of the Most Common Medical, Educational, and Psychological Tests. New York: Plume, 1992.
Shore, Milton F., Patrick J. Brice, and Barbara G. Love. When Your Child Needs Testing: What Parents, Teachers, and Other Helpers Need to Know about Psychological Testing. New York: Crossroad, 1992.
Walsh, W. Bruce, and Nancy E. Betz. Tests and Assessment. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.
(The entire section is 200 words.)
Thematic Apperception Test (Encyclopedia of Children's Health)
The Thematic Apperception Test is a projective personality test.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is widely used to research certain topics in psychology, such as dreams and fantasies, mate selection, the factors that motivate people's choice of occupations, and similar subjects. It is sometimes used in psychiatric evaluations to assess disordered thinking and in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects, even though it is not a diagnostic test. The TAT can be used to help people understand their own personality in greater depth and build on that knowledge in making important life decisions. Lastly, it is sometimes used as a screener in psychological evaluations of candidates for high-stress occupations (law enforcement, the military, religious ministry, for example).
The TAT is a projective personality test that was designed at Harvard University in the 1930s by Christiana D. Morgan and Henry A. Murray. Along with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach inkblot test, the TAT is one of the most widely used psychological tests. A projective test is one in which a person's...
(The entire section is 720 words.)