The Poem

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

“The Testing-Tree” is a poetic sequence divided into four sections, each written in supple free verse with no stanza breaks. The lines themselves are prepositional phrases or noun clauses and are generally enjambed, giving the reader a sense of flowing, forward movement. The title, the same as that for the entire volume of poetry in which it was originally published, is mythic, suggesting the biblical Tree of Knowledge where Adam and Eve are tested and Ygdrassil, the tree of wisdom from Norse mythology. The title is also specific, being emblematic of the tree where the narrator played games and in which he carved his name. Each sequence within the poem operates on both levels—the mythic and the local.

In section 1, the narrative “I” recalls the imaginary games and challenges of childhood in which reality, “the Academy ballpark/ where I could never hope to play,” is juxtaposed against the imaginative life in which “magic Keds” bring “the prize of the mastery” and the speaker is the “world’s fastest human.” The speaker recalls these imaginative visions with concrete nouns (“flying skin,” “crouching start”) and makes these experiences vivid for the reader, while the quotidian events of daily life are only hinted at in the first three lines of the section before being abandoned in favor of the imaginary, which offers more potential and fulfillment. It is the “magic” that is able to project the speaker beyond a rather banal present into a realm of imagination; the speaker is...

(The entire section is 621 words.)

The Testing-Tree Forms and Devices

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

References to mythic symbols abound in Stanley Kunitz’s poem. The primary recurring image is that of various types of paths: a “stretch of road” in section 1 and an “umbrageous trail” in section 2; though there is no direct naming of a path in section 3, its presence is implied as the narrator winds by the stone quarry into a clearing. This clearing is the end of the trail, and “the inexhaustible oak” stands as the final test for the narrator. For the moment, the metaphor of paths is suspended as the narrator enters the shadow of the great tree and throws his stones of destiny in an attempt to wrest a blessing from it. The relapse is momentary, however: In section 4, the poet returns to the metaphor of paths. This time it is in the form of a highway unfurled, and the narrator instead wishes for the trail. The highway is associated with a mechanistic element of society that has so far been absent in the poem: A Model A car and a military tank with turrets dominate this path. Combat and industrialism intrude into the haven of consciousness offered by nature in section 3. The repetition of the road imagery indicates its centrality to the meaning of the poem, and it becomes a metaphor for the journey, the heroic quest, on which the narrator embarks.

The poem’s imagery, however, is not limited to that of a journey. In section 3, the “target,” or the end of the trail, is reached. This section abounds in rich symbols: an oak, stones, acorns, and a watchtower. Some of the symbols are made explicit (the stones “changing to oracles,” for example), but many are left implicit, to be decoded by the reader. Traditionally in Celtic mythology, acorns were seen as seeds of prophecy: If a seer ate them, he could be given the voice of prophecy. Such a reading, with both biblical and Celtic overtones, is underscored by the presence of the name Jehovah, the highest name that can be invoked for prophecy and wisdom within the Hebraic tradition of prophets. “Bless my good right arm” the narrator asks of an absent figure who represents both a physical father and God the Father, Jehovah. The poem functions on a literal level with a boy, stones, and a tree, and on a symbolic level with a narrator, oracles, and the tree of wisdom.

The Testing-Tree Bibliography

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

Busa, Chris. “Stanley Kunitz: The Art of Poetry XXIX.” The Paris Review 24 (Spring, 1982): 204-246.

A Celebration for Stanley Kunitz: On His Eightieth Birthday. Riverdale-on-the-Hudson, N.Y.: Sheep Meadow Press, 1986.

Hagstrum, Jean H. “The Poetry of Stanley Kunitz: An Introductory Essay.” In Poets in Progress, edited by Edward B. Hungerford. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1967.

Hénault, Marie. Stanley Kunitz. Boston: Twayne, 1980.

Kunitz, Stanley. Interview by Caroline Sutton. Publishers Weekly 228 (December 20, 1985): 67-68.

Kunitz, Stanley. “An Interview with Stanley Kunitz.” Interview by Cynthia Davis. Contemporary Literature 15 (Winter, 1974): 1-14.

Lundquist, Kent. “Stanley Kunitz.” In Encyclopedia of American Literature, edited by Steven R. Serafin. New York: Continuum Press, 1999.

Martin, Harry. “Warren and Kunitz: Poets in the American Grain.” The Washington Post Book World, September 30, 1979, 10.

Orr, Gregory. Stanley Kunitz: An Introduction to the Poetry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Ostroff, Anthony J., ed. The Contemporary Poet as Artist and Critic. Boston: Little, Brown, 1964.

Shaw, Robert B. “A Book of Changes.” The New York Times Book Review, July 22, 1979, 1, 20.