Tawaquaptewa (American Indians Ready Reference)
Article abstract: Tawaquaptewa tried to lead his clan and the Progressives through major civil strife in the Hopi Nation; he is blamed for the degradation of the ancient pueblo of Oraibi.
Appointed chief of Oraibi, the oldest continuously occupied settlement in America, in 1901, Tawaquaptewa represented one of two factions of Hopis, the Friendlies, or Progressives, led by Lololma of the Bear Clan. The Hostiles, or Traditionals, were led by the dynamic and irascible Yukioma. The factions arose over a dispute about how much the Hopi should depend on the federal government for assistance. Lololma had earlier signed an agreement with the Bureau of Indian Affairs that pledged government support for the Hopi in their efforts to keep Navajo from trespassing on the Hopi reservation. The Hostiles believed that such agreements would lead to increased government intervention and further degradation of their spiritual and ceremonial roots; they wanted the policing of their land to be done without outside assistance. In 1891, a Navajo murdered Lololma's nephew on the Hopi reservation. The bureau reluctantly arrested a Navajo suspect, then allowed him to escape, adding to the tension between the two factions.
In September of 1906, Tawaquaptewa attempted to force Lololma's allies, led by Yukioma, from Oraibi. The skirmish would have led to civil war if not for the efforts of the Reverend H. R. Voth, a Mennonite missionary. Tawaquaptewa and...
(The entire section is 393 words.)
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