Tenney, Tabitha Gilman
Tabitha Gilman Tenney 1762-1837
(Born Tabitha Gilman) American novelist.
Tabitha Tenney is known to have published only a single work, the novel Female Quixotism: Exhibited in the Romantic Opinions and Extravagant Adventures of Dorcasina Sheldon (1801), which is considered both a parody of the sentimental novel and a satire of the social and political inequities that existed in the United States during her lifetime. Tenney has been noted for exposing the socially restrictive roles to which women were expected to adhere, as well as for her ability to combine comic elements with an unsentimental view of life.
Tenney was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, on April 7, 1762. The eldest child of Samuel Gilman and Lydia Robinson Giddings, she was raised in an educated, religious, and politically active household. While there is scant documentation of Tenney's life, biographers speculate that as the oldest child in the family she stayed at home to help care for her six siblings after her father's death in 1778. The diaries of Patty Rogers, who also lived in Exeter, provide the principal source of information regarding Tenney's character. Rogers described Tenney as someone whom she found particularly repellent, although the diarist admitted that she could not fully explain her opinion of Tenney. This characterization may have been colored by the fact that Rogers was a rival for the affections of Dr. Samuel Tenney, a surgeon who became Tenney's husband in 1788. The couple moved to Washington, D.C., after 1800, where Dr. Tenney served as a congressman until his death in 1816. Public records and family histories describe Tenney as “accomplished” and, as evidence of this, Tenney edited a textbook of writings for young women entitled The Pleasing Instructor (1799). This volume covered such subjects as literature, music, and geography. In 1801, Tenney published Female Quixotism, which was well-received by contemporary readers and reviewers. Tenney returned to Exeter following her husband's death. She died in 1837 after a brief illness.
Tenney's Female Quixotism is modeled after both Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quixote (1605) and Charlotte Lennox's The Female Quixote (1762). The novel centers on Dorcasina Sheldon's romantic entanglements with different suitors. In all these relationships, Dorcasina is guided by a desire for the kind of romantic love that is exhibited in the sentimental novels she reads. By the end of the narrative, Dorcasina is an old maid who has knowingly traded opportunities for marriage and a conventional life in order to pursue an unfulfilled, idealized romance. Tenney's depiction of her protagonist and her refusal to supply the novel with a redemptive ending have led critics to view Female Quixotism as both a parody of the sentimental novel of the eighteenth century and as a work that cautions readers against the romantic illusions encouraged by the genre. At the same time, Tenney's novel exposes the limited options for women in Jeffersonian America and suggests the ambivalence of the period regarding class and racial issues.
Female Quixotism was a popular work during Tenney's lifetime and went through five printings between 1801 and 1841. Based on this single novel, Tenney has attained a reputation as a significant early American novelist. Scholars assert that her work contributes to a greater understanding of the genre of the sentimental novel and serves as a critique of early American society, particularly concerning the limited prospects for women during this time. Cathy Davidson argues that one of Tenney's primary goals was to promote critical reading for women when such literary endeavors were not encouraged. Davidson explains: “Female Quixotism is a more subtle how-not-to-read-a-novel novel. Tenney allegorizes the reading process and turns it upon itself; one must be a resisting reader, a critical reader, … able to read the context in which the text is read.” Cynthia Miecznikowski, however, suggests that Tenney's novel should be read as a parody of the romance novel rather than simply a satire of the reading and interpreting processes themselves. Miecznikowski reasons that “if we read Tenney's novel as parody …, it unmasks its own textuality, suspending satiric judgment, deferring moral didacticism, and leaving its readers to judge the text on its own terms.” Given Tenney's adept use of humor in her novel, critics also find that Female Quixotism serves as an example of an emerging comic sensibility in American literature. In the late twentieth century, several new editions of Tenney's novel were published. Critics Jean Nienkamp and Andrea Collins conclude that Female Quixotism, while popular in its own time, still offers an enlightening look at eighteenth-century literature and contemporary social issues.
SOURCE: Petter, Henri. “The Pernicious Novels Exposed: Female Quixotism.” In The Early American Novel, pp. 46-59. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1971.
[In the following essay, Petter emphasizes Tenney's didactic tone in Female Quixotism.]
Mrs. Tabitha Tenney published in 1801 a novel modeled after Don Quixote and meant to be a warning against romantic fiction: Female Quixotism: Exhibited in the Romantic Opinions and Extravagant Adventures of Dorcasina Sheldon. Dorcasina has been reading too many novels ever since she was a young girl; as a result she has imbibed notions difficult to conciliate with the demands made on her by a normal existence among people not similarly influenced by novel-reading.1
From the outset Mrs. Tenney's heroine is predisposed to respond to all the dangerous influences that may be conveyed by fiction. Her romantic turn of mind2 conditions her attitude toward novels and, through them, toward sober life. This peculiar receptivity of Dorcasina was of course purposely invented and exploited by Mrs. Tenney to achieve her didactic aim. It is this intention of hers, to expose the dangers of novel-reading, that is first to be considered.3 Her purpose is very much a reality throughout the book, however rewarding and enjoyable writing the burlesque may have turned out to be.4 Mrs. Tenney's message may therefore be dissociated from its comic literary form, as indeed it must have been by the contemporary readers who welcomed her indictment of the modern novel.5 Her lustily exaggerated attack on fiction can easily be corroborated and supplemented by references to the writings and opinions of others more directly and sternly hostile to the novel.6
Mrs. Tenney dedicated her book “To all Columbian Young Ladies, who Read Novels and Romances” (1:iii).7 Her heroine is, at the beginning of the novel, just such a young lady: the dedication, and the choice of the heroine, are not accidental or mere matters of convention. It was the ladies who were commonly held to constitute the body of novel-readers,8 and especially the young ladies who had leisure and opportunity to read much fiction. Moreover, being young, they were liable to be strongly impressed and possibly lastingly influenced by their reading.9 Being ladies, they were per definitionem romantically inclined, that is, open to suggestions and appeals to the imagination, the fancy, the feelings.10 Being young ladies, finally, they were thought to respond with particular warmth to the subject of love, so much in the foreground of novels and romances.11
Novels and romances were lumped together by Mrs. Tenney, as they were by most opponents of fiction among her contemporaries.12 There is no need for a detailed discussion of the terms here; it may be stated generally that the criticism of the novel took mainly the form of an attack against the romantic and sensational treatment of the theme of love in the fiction of the day,13 and that other strictures were subordinate to, and a consequence of, that fundamental objection. Mrs. Tenney's Female Quixotism clearly illustrates this attitude of disapproval.
The novels of the day were often declared by their authors to be based on truth.14 Mrs. Tenney did not miss her opportunity of making fun of the pretense. The story of Dorcasina is “a true picture of real life,” “a true uncoloured history” (1:iii); at the same time Mrs. Tenney testified to the authenticity of her tale only by referring to a fictional precedent, the authority of Don Quixote. In other words, her book is as little a report from life as the writings of other authors who rely patently on literary models or on pure invention.
Just as Don Quixote set out to realize ideas and ideals fashioned out of the romances he had made himself so thoroughly familiar with, Dorcasina expects to find life a counterpart of the versions of it offered by the novelists. For her head “had been turned by the unrestrained perusal of Novels and Romances” (1:iv),15 and she is governed by the “Romantic Opinions” so acquired. How has this come about? Handicapped by the romantic inclination already referred to, Dorcasina is also the victim of circumstances beyond her power to control. She early loses her mother and is then brought up by her father in a remote Pennsylvania village. Her mother's death is a crucial calamity: “At the age of three years, this child had the misfortune to lose an excellent mother, whose advice would have pointed out to her the plain rational path of life; and prevented her imagination from being filled with the airy delusions and visionary dreams … with which the indiscreet writers of that fascinating kind of books, denominated Novels, fill the heads of artless young girls, to their great injury, and sometimes to their utter ruin” (1:5).16 Since Mrs. Tenney was speaking to young ladies and future mothers, her stress on a mother's educational role was an absolute necessity. It is also clear that Mr. Sheldon is found not to have attended to his duties properly.17 He has failed to make up for the maternal advice Dorcasina did not receive; he should have pointed out to his daughter not just her everyday duties but the part that novels are allowed to play in a girl's life. This specific error of Sheldon is accounted for, though it cannot be excused: a great reader himself, Sheldon reads novels as a relaxation from studying history. When his daughter follows his example, he does not make sure that she observes like himself the relative importance of the departments of instruction and entertainment. Dorcasina is quickly fascinated18 by novels and, as she later confesses, becomes quite incapable of more serious and informative reading.19
Her reading shapes her imagination according to definite patterns that are basic to romantic fiction but, from the point of plain common sense, mere “airy delusions and visionary dreams.” Dorcasina's other faults combine with her romantic inclinations to render her particularly vulnerable: she is vain of her appearance and sensibility, and she is stubborn. It is due to her vanity that she likens her position and appeal to that of many heroines of romances (with whom she may well have in common the pathetic attribute of being motherless); her principal vision is that of being swept off her feet by a perfect lover. It is owing to her obstinacy that, when convinced of having met that ideal lover, no reasoning, and not even the evidence of her senses, can make her realize that she may, after all, be terribly wrong.
Having once envisioned herself as a young lady compelling love20 and merely waiting for the all-accomplished lover to turn up, Dorcasina no longer heeds her very real qualities. Yet they are by no means negligible: “She had received from nature a good understanding, a lively fancy, an amiable cheerful temper, and a kind and affectionate heart” (1:6). This is confirmed by Mrs. Stanly, a neighbor and faithful friend, long after Dorcasina has started making a fool of herself by trying to translate her romance-formed notions of love into principles of practicable social behavior: “Miss Sheldon is possessed of an amiable disposition, and an excellent heart; and, on every other subject but one, her understanding is strong, and her judgment good; and in her youth her person was tolerably pleasing” (2:37).
Dorcasina's appearance is pleasing enough, though Mrs. Tenney could not keep from poking fun at the superlative beauties of the conventional novel-heroine:
Now I suppose it will be expected that, in imitation of sister novel writers (for the ladies of late seem to have almost appropriated this department of writing) I should describe her as distinguished by the elegant form, delicately turned limbs, auburn hair, alabaster skin, heavenly languishing eyes, silken eyelashes, rosy cheeks, aquiline nose, ruby lips, dimpled chin, and azure veins, with which almost all our heroines of romance are indiscriminately decorated. In truth she possessed few of those beauties, in any great degree. She was of a middling stature, a little embonpoint, but neither elegant nor clumsy. Her complexion was rather dark; her skin somewhat rough; and features remarkable neither for beauty nor deformity. Her eyes were grey and full of expression, and her whole countenance rather pleasing than otherwise. In short, she was a middling kind of person, like the greater part of her countrywomen; such as no man would be smitten with at first sight, but such as any man might love upon intimate acquaintance.
The first part of this passage contains something like Dorcasina's own estimate of herself. But when her first lover comes, he sees her as she is in reality and conforms to the pattern of behavior predicted by Mrs. Tenney—which is to say, too, that he disappoints Dorcasina.
The poor girl feels all the more painfully let down as she has experienced contrasting emotions since she first heard of Lysander's coming. At first she was rather chilled at the businesslike way in which their meeting was arranged for by their fathers: “She would, to be sure, have been better pleased, had their acquaintance commenced in a more romantic manner” (1:8). The reader, who does not know what the “more romantic manner” may be, will learn by reading on: he will then see Dorcasina respond most warmly to a handsome stranger playing the flute all by himself in Dorcasina's favorite grove; he will find her moved and interested when discovering in the wood a letter addressed to her by an adorer she has not yet met; and he will see her fall in love at merely hearing that a gentleman has arrived at her father's house, an officer wounded while fighting the Indians and unable to pursue his journey home.
There is, in addition to the initial disappointment just mentioned, another feature about her designated fiancé that is unpleasant to Dorcasina's sensitive nature: she surmises that, coming from Virginia, Lysander must be a slave-holder, and her humanitarian notions revolt at the very idea of the sufferings he must cause and tolerate. The idea of a young girl compassionately suffering with the slaves is not necessarily to be ridiculed; it soon becomes plain that Mrs. Tenney is not criticizing that particular emotional reaction but rather Dorcasina's tendency to sentimentalize all subjects and to take herself too seriously in the role of the sorrowing sympathizer. The consequence of feeling in extremes is naturally a blunting and leveling of the emotions.21 When a clandestine suitor of Dorcasina is described as looking very much the worse for wear because of a drubbing he has received, the girl's grief is therefore described as follows: “Dorcasina had taken to her bed, with marks of as great sorrow as ever was experienced for the death of a lap-dog, or favourite parrot” (1:67). Dorcasina's maid Betty, a commonsensical creature who knows her lady quite well, is shrewdly aware of the heroine's tendency to play her emotional roles. She quickly transforms Dorcasina's misgivings at the prospect of marrying a withholder of freedom into the anticipation of turning into a giver of freedom herself: why shouldn't she emancipate the slaves, once she has become Lysander's wife?
So it is with high expectations restored that Dorcasina meets Lysander. Her hopes seem about to be fulfilled, for this is what meets her eye: “His person was noble and commanding; his countenance open and liberal; and his address manly and pleasing” (1:8). What with her opinion of her charms, she now fully counts upon love taking its course, a course that she will outline on a later occasion: “… The man to whom I unite myself in marriage, must first behold me, and at a glance be transfixed to the heart, and I too sir, must conceive at the same time a violent passion for him. In short, our love must be sudden, ardent, violent, and mutual. Matches made upon this foundation can alone be productive of lasting felicity” (2:66). Events do not conform to this pattern, however. Lysander is formal and respectful but not ardent, and Dorcasina is at first so taken aback that she appears unduly reticent and laconic. Yet all is not lost. Dorcasina regrets her coolness, and in the course of his stay with the Sheldons, Lysander evidently falls in love with the girl. Dorcasina, an obedient daughter who loves her father truly, might now reasonably be expected to accept the offer of a young man who has much to recommend him. She is very eager to have his first letter, in which Lysander is sure to ask for permission to write to her as her accepted suitor. But the letter is another blow to Dorcasina's image-making. It is true to the young man's qualities: “His understanding was rather solid than brilliant, and much improved by education and travel. His ideas of domestic happiness were just and rational; and he judged from what he had observed, that an agreeable matrimonial connexion was much the happiest state in life” (1:8).
Dorcasina, who has been seeing and talking to Lysander for weeks, should by now know what he is like, but she does not because she relies only in part upon her observation and much more on the rules of behavior as taught by the romantic novelists. This reliance explains Dorcasina's reaction to Lysander's letter:
Upon the perusal of this letter, Dorcasina experienced but one sentiment, and that was mortification. She read it over and over again; and was, to the last degree, chagrined at its coldness. She compared it with various letters in her favourite authors; and found it so widely different in style and sentiment, that she abhorred the idea of a connexion with a person who could be the author of it. What added greatly to her disgust was, that he said not a word of her personal charms, upon which she so much valued herself. Not even the slightest compliment to her person; nothing of angel or goddess, raptures or flames, in the whole letter.
The girl clearly sets great store by the forms of courtship. Conventional clichés, expressions, and ideas are to her the sum of an emotion, and the closer they approximate the precedents of romance, the more genuine she judges them to be. The protestations of love have an absolute value; if those addressed to her are very much below par, that is an offense against love and an indication of inadequacy in her lover. Moreover, Lysander insults her personally by neglecting to flatter her.
The Lysander episode is dealt with in the first two chapters and sixteen pages of Female Quixotism, which runs to twenty-six chapters and nearly four hundred pages. The twenty-year-old Dorcasina is there shown renouncing common sense with regard to love and marriage. We are to understand that she could, by marrying Lysander, easily have overcome her...
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SOURCE: Hoople, Sally C. “The Spanish, English, and American Quixotes.” Anales Cervantinos 22 (1984): 1-24.
[In the following essay, Hoople traces the influence of Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quixote on Charlotte Lennox's The Female Quixote and Tenney's Female Quixotism.]
Tabitha Tenney's novel Female Quixotism, which was published in Boston in 1801, is, as Duyckinck says, “one of the numerous literary progeny of Cervantes' immortal satire.”1 Moreover, in many ways Tenney is closely related to two other early authors whose work reflects the influence of Don Quixote. Although Charlotte Lennox was born in New York in 1720, she...
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SOURCE: Davidson, Cathy N. “The Picaresque and the Margins of Political Discourse: The Female Picaresque.” In Revolution and the Word: The Rise of the Novel in America, pp. 179-92. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
[In the following excerpt, Davidson examines the female picaresque novel and its appropriation of a literary form which celebrates male social mobility, claiming that Tenney's employment of the picaresque and her marginalized status as an author expose the restrictions of women of the period.]
A woman on horseback, presents her form to advantage; but much more at the spinning wheel.
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SOURCE: Miecznikowski, Cynthia J. “The Parodic Mode and the Patriarchal Imperative: Reading the Female Reader(s) in Tabitha Tenney's Female Quixotism.” Early American Literature 24, no. 1 (1990): 34-45.
[In the following essay, Miecznikowski considers the parodic functions of Female Quixotism in relation to the eighteenth-century sentimental novel and Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quixote.]
Tabitha Gilman Tenney's novel Female Quixotism: Exhibited in the Romantic Opinions and Extravagant Adventures of Dorcasina Sheldon, first published anonymously in 1801 and widely reprinted thereafter, is underestimated by twentieth-century scholars of early...
(The entire section is 5166 words.)
SOURCE: Nienkamp, Jean, and Andrea Collins. Introduction to Female Quixotism: Exhibited in the Romantic Opinions and Extravagant Adventures of Dorcasina Sheldon, by Tabitha Gilman Tenney. 1801. Reprint, pp. xiii-xxviii. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
[In the following essay, Nienkamp and Collins provide an overview of the historical and cultural influences on Tenney's novel as well as a biographical sketch of Tenney that offers insight into her literary achievement.]
When Female Quixotism was first published in 1801, the United States was engaged in building a national identity. All aspects of life—not just the laws inherited from England—were...
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SOURCE: Çaliskan, Sevda. “The Coded Language of Female Quixotism.” Studies in American Humor 3, no. 2 (1995): 23-35.
[In the following essay, Çaliskan considers the subversive humor of Female Quixotism.]
In her witty article titled “What Can a Heroine Do? Or Why Women Can't Write” (1972), Joanna Russ, the author of the highly provocative The Female Man, makes a list of very familiar situations or story lines which seem very funny when “the sex of the protagonist (and correspondingly the sex of the other characters)” is changed. Here are a few examples of these odd transformations:
- a. Two strong women battle for supremacy...
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SOURCE: Harris, Sharon M. “Lost Boundaries: The Use of the Carnivalesque in Tabitha Tenney's Female Quixotism.” In Speaking the Other Self: American Women Writers, edited by Jeanne Campbell Reesman, pp. 213-28. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1997.
[In the following essay, Harris argues that Tenney's employment of the carnivalesque in Female Quixotism exposes the limitations of the purportedly democratic government of the United States during the early years of the new nation.]
When Tabitha Gilman Tenney's novel Female Quixotism was published in 1801, it joined a national voice of lament over the dangers of novel reading. The typical...
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SOURCE: Traister, Bryce. “Libertinism and Authorship in America's Early Republic.” American Literature 72, no. 1 (2000): 1-30.
[In the following essay, Traister compares some of Tenney's male characters in Female Quixotism to the stereotypical American libertine male and his representation in Charles Brockden Brown's novel Arthur Mervyn.]
Late in the first book of Tabitha Tenney's Female Quixotism (1801), the novel's heroine, Dorcasina Sheldon, “calling herself the most wretched of women” because her unreasonable father has prohibited her marriage to Patrick O'Connor, rejects the novels “in which she had formerly taken such delight” and turns...
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White, Devon. “Contemporary Criticism of Five Early American Sentimental Novels, 1970-1994: An Annotated Bibliography.” Bulletin of Bibliography 52, no. 4 (December 1995): 293-305.
Provides an annotated bibliography of scholarship pertaining to five early American sentimental novels, including Tenney's Female Quixotism.
Brown, Herbert Ross. The Sentimental Novel in America 1789-1860. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1940.
Defines and contextualizes the sentimental novel with references to Tenney.
Frost, Linda. “The Body Politic in Tabitha...
(The entire section is 173 words.)