Susanna Moodie 1803-1885
(Born Susanna Strickland) Canadian nonfiction writer, memoirist, novelist, poet, short story writer, and children's book author.
The following entry presents criticism from 1979 to 2000 on Susanna Moodie's works. For further discussion of Moodie's life and career see NCLC, Volume 14.
An important early figure in the literary history of Canada, Moodie is best known for Roughing It in the Bush; or, Life in Canada (1852), a collection of sketches and poems that chronicles her experiences as a well-to-do immigrant from England dealing with harsh circumstances in the Canadian backwoods. Moodie was one of several authors in her family, which included her sisters Agnes Stickland and Catharine Parr Traill. Moodie's literary career began in England with juvenilia and religiously-oriented poems, though it was with the essentially non-fiction Roughing It in the Bush and Life in the Clearings versus the Bush (1853), a series of sketches about life in growing Canadian towns, that attracted the most critical attention. She also wrote several minor novels with Romantic and sentimental tones. Though Moodie has been viewed at times as anti-Canadian, her depictions of the emigrant experience are generally regarded as insightful and revealing.
Moodie was born Susanna Strickland on December 6, 1803, in Bungay, Suffolk, England. She was the daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Homer Strickland and had five older sisters and one brother. Moodie's father had been the manager of Greenland Dock but retired soon after Moodie's birth. After living a short time at Stowe House on the Waveney near Bungay, Moodie's father bought Reydon Hall, near Southwold, Suffolk, where Moodie grew up. Reydon Hall was rather isolated but contained an extensive library. Moodie's elder sisters had been tutored by their father, but his failing health rendered him unable to provide the same instruction for his youngest children. Instead, Moodie's sisters served as her educators. By the time Thomas Strickland died in the spring of 1818, Moodie's sisters had begun their literary careers—in part to support the family—writing on a variety of subjects in a number of genres. Moodie began publishing in the early 1820s, developing literary relationships to further her pursuits as a writer. One important connection was Mary Russell Mitford, who wrote rural sketches in books like Our Village (1824). Moodie wrote similar works, such as “Sketches from the Country,” for London-based magazines with publishing help from Thomas Harral. Moodie's writing also reflected changes in her personal life. Active in the Anti-Slavery Society, Moodie abandoned her strong Anglican roots to attend a Nonconformist Chapel of Congregationalists. Though her family was unhappy with this choice, Moodie's religious experiences often became the subjects of her poetry and prose. In 1831 Moodie married Lt. John Dunbar Moodie, an officer on half-pay and a minor writer. The couple emigrated to Canada in the summer of 1832, with hopes of a better life and more stable income as reported by many early settlers. The Moodies experienced much hardship in their first years in Canada. After initial attempts to work a cleared farm they purchased near Cobourg (in what would come to be known as Ontario), they moved to the backwoods near Peterborough. They were neither happy nor successful in either location because they were not prepared for the experiences they faced that were so different from life in England. In her new setting, Moodie wrote only on occasion, publishing poems and essays in local magazines. The Moodies continued to face many financial difficulties, however, and by the late 1830s, the family left the backwoods when John Moodie was appointed sheriff of the Victoria District. The family moved to Belleville in 1840 and Moodie increased her writing efforts. She published sketches of Canadian and English life as well as serialized novels in the Montreal-based Literary Garland from 1838 to 1851. She also edited and wrote much material for Victoria Magazine in collaboration with her husband. Moodie collected some of the pieces she wrote for the Literary Garland into a book that was published in London by an associate, Richard Bentley, and entitled Roughing It in the Bush. Bentley helped her publish many of her subsequent books through the mid-1850s. Moodie again focused on her Canadian experiences to write Life in the Clearings and Flora Lyndsay; or Passages in an Eventful Life (1854), a semi-autobiographical novel about a young emigrant couple. By the late 1850s Moodie's literary output had significantly declined, but when the family was confronted with new financial troubles due to the loss of John Moodie's position as sheriff, Moodie returned to writing. She published two novels The World before Them (1868) and George Leatrim (1875), in addition to contributing to periodicals. After John Moodie died in 1869, Moodie lived alternately with two of her five surviving children. She died in Toronto on April 8, 1885.
Moodie's first works were published in England. Her first novel, Spartacus, A Roman Story, (1822) demonstrated her veneration of valiant heroes. In 1831 Moodie published Enthusiasm, a collection of poems. Primarily written after her religious conversion, these poems were sentimental, moral, and emphasized the importance of faith and humility. Moodie's most important works were written after her emigration to Canada. The first and best known is Roughing It in the Bush. John Moodie wrote some chapters included in the first edition of this novel, but these were removed in subsequent editions. While her intent in writing the book was to warn those of her social class not to emigrate to Canada and live in the backwoods, but to live only on cleared farms or pursue investment opportunities, misfortune and bad experiences were not the sole focus of the text. Moodie also included humorous anecdotes regarding the natives and poetic descriptions of the landscape. Moodie next published Life in the Clearings. In this book, Moodie wrote about frontier Canadian towns and burgeoning institutions, seeking to convey the development of Canadian society. Many of her subsequent works were sentimental novels, including Mark Hurdlestone, the Gold Worshipper (1853) and Geoffrey Moncton; or, The Faithless Guardian (1855). One of the most important of her later works was Flora Lyndsay. The novel employed an episodic structure and was character, rather than plot, driven. Many critics noted the uniqueness of Flora Lyndsay in that the main character in the story writes a novel that takes up much of the text. With Roughing It, Life in the Clearings, and Flora Lyndsay, Moodie formed a moving trilogy about the immigrant experience.
Critics have centered most of their attention around Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush. While initial response to the book was lukewarm, some critics did appreciate the factual information Moodie included, as well as its humor and lively style. Modern critics have focused on a number of issues, including the collection's social value and its reflection of the time in which it was written. Critics have analyzed its structure and genre: some see it as strictly autobiographical, while others believe the text has many dramatic and fictional elements. The desperate nature of the language Moodie employed and her intent in writing the text have also been debated. Critics have discussed issues of class, depiction of Native American women, women's view of emigration, and religion in Moodie's novel. Scholars have, in addition, contemplated the influence Roughing It had in the development of Canadian literature. Similar analysis is made of Life in the Clearings, though many critics see it as less despondent and repressed than Roughing It. Modern critics have not paid much attention to Moodie's writing beyond these two books, though Flora Lyndsay received some notice in being compared with other pieces of the trilogy. Critics have attempted to offer insight into the inspiration of Moodie's poems—Canadian events, religious concerns, grief and disaster, among other topics—though most have been unimpressed, pointing out that structure does not harmonize with content in Moodie's poems. Poetry is also found in Roughing It, and critics discuss the relative success of this technique within Moodie's narrative text. While some critics view Moodie as anti-Canadian, especially in her Roughing It in the Bush, they admit that her work was significant in the development of Canada's national identity.
Spartacus, A Roman Story (novel) 1822
Enthusiasm, and Other Poems (poetry) 1831
Patriotic Songs [with Agnes Strickland] (poetry) 1831
*Roughing It in the Bush; or, Life in Canada 2 vols. (sketches and poetry) 1852
Life in the Clearings versus the Bush (sketches and poetry) 1853
Mark Hurdlestone, the Gold Worshipper 2 vols. (novel) 1853
Flora Lyndsay; or, Passages in an Eventful Life 2 vols. (novel) 1854
Matrimonial Speculations (short stories) 1854
Geoffrey Moncton; or, The Faithless Guardian (novel) 1855; republished as The Moncktons. A Novel 1856
The World before Them. A Novel. 3 vols. (novel) 1868
George Leatrim; or, The Mother's Test (novel) 1875
Letters of a Lifetime (letters) 1985
*This work contains portions by John Dunbar Moodie.
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SOURCE: Fowler, Marian. “Susanna Moodie.” In The Embroidered Tent; Five Gentlewomen in Early Canada: Elizabeth Simcoe, Catharine Parr Traill, Susanna Moodie, Anna Jameson, Lady Dufferin, pp. 93-131. Toronto: House of Anansi Press Limited, 1982.
[In the following essay, Fowler presents Roughing It in the Bush as a blend of fact and fiction that borrows heavily from the conventions of the sentimental novel.]
It is hard to imagine two sisters less alike than Catharine Parr Traill and Susanna Moodie. They were different in looks, in temperament, and in response to the New World. They were Snow White and Rose Red; they were Martha and Mary. They were Elinor and Marianne Dashwood, the Sense and Sensibility sisters of Jane Austen's novel. Susanna was a year younger than Catharine, born in 1803. She was tall and dark, thin and intense, with eyes deep-set and shadowed. She was not her father's favourite, but rather the family rebel.
Catharine and Susanna did, however, have something in common. They had both married half-pay officers, and both emigrated to Canada in 1832. In fact, Catharine's husband Thomas was a fellow-officer of John Wedderburn Dunbar Moodie. Susanna had met him in 1829 at a London literary tea—a romantic figure just then recovering from wounds inflicted by a mad elephant in South Africa. Susanna had married first, and it was while visiting the Moodies that...
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SOURCE: Ballstadt, Carl. “Secure in Conscious Worth: Susanna Moodie and the Rebellion of 1837.” Canadian Poetry 18 (spring-summer 1986): 88-98.
[In the following essay, Ballstadt explores the inconsistencies of theme and purpose in Moodie's political poems and prose published during the period of the Rebellion of 1837.]
During the period of the Rebellion in Upper Canada in late 1837 and early 1838, Susanna Moodie, writing from her backwoods home in Douro township, entered the conflict on the government side with her poetic calls to loyal men to quell the rebel forces.1 Several of these poems, “Canadians Will You Join the Band. A Loyal Song,” “The Oath of the Canadian Volunteers. A Loyal Song for Canada,” “The Banner of England,” and “The Burning of the Caroline,” appeared first in the Palladium of British America, and Upper Canada Mercantile Advertiser (Toronto), edited by Charles Forbes Fothergill (1782-1840),2 and subsequently were given wide circulation through reprinting in various newspapers in Upper and Lower Canada and eventually in the Literary Garland.3 At least three other poems, “A National Song. The Wind That Sweeps Our Native Sea,” “Song. The Trumpets Sound!,” and “There Is Not a Spot in this Wide Peopled Earth,” while not directly referring to the rebellion, were expressions of loyalty written in the same period...
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SOURCE: Glickman, Susan. “The Waxing and Waning of Susanna Moodie's ‘Enthusiasm.’” Canadian Literature 130 (autumn 1991): 7-26.
[In the following essay, Glickman discusses Moodie's early religious and literary influences evident in her poetry collection Enthusiasm.]
“At my Heart's Core” by Robertson Davies is a Shavian discussion play starring the three Otonabee pioneers who are best known to posterity through their writings: Frances Stewart, Catharine Parr Traill and Susanna Moodie. The play is set at the time of the Upper Canada Rebellion and Susanna Moodie, whom the stage directions describe as having “a ladylike hint of the drill-sergeant in her demeanour,” persistently blames the Methodists for stirring up revolution.1 “When you say Methodist, you say Radical. They all think that the world can be improved by rebellion against authority. It can't,” she declares. At the same time, she refuses to make the usual nineteenth-century association between revolution and poetry, for when her sister Catharine teases her about leaving the Dissenters out of her rousing “Oath of the Canadian Volunteers,” Susanna replies stiffly “I do not consider Methodists, even in a time of crisis, to be the stuff of which poetry is made.”2
Although she was born at the turn of the century, Susanna Moodie does give little evidence of having been moved by the...
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SOURCE: Thurston, John. “Roughing It in the Bush: A Case Study in Colonial Contradictions.” In The Work of Words: The Writing of Susanna Strickland Moodie, pp. 133-66. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.
[In the following excerpt, Thurston considers the composition, editing, and import of Roughing It in the Bush.]
That Moodie dredges up recollections of her first years in Upper Canada when she first writes about it speaks of the emotional burden those years laid upon her. A desire to wrest meaning from her earliest experiences of the colony drives Roughing It in the Bush. It is as much an expression of her needs in the 1850s as a representation of her life in the 1830s. The pain charging her memories of Cobourg clearing and Douro bush comes partly from her nagging sense of that period as a void in the progress of her life. That suffering and trial had bought nothing and, if left unredeemed, might bankrupt the whole Canada venture. Carol Shields' description of Moodie's writing as “an attempt to find confirmation of … an existence which was hidden in an alien wilderness and all but buried alive” applies best to Roughing It (1977, 32). Elizabeth Thompson suggests that “Moodie's inability to resolve” the tensions between gentlewoman and pioneer may, compared to Traill, “be the more accurate rendering” (1991, 32). Moodie became engaged in Roughing It...
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SOURCE: Thompson, Elizabeth. “Roughing It in the Bush: Patterns of Emigration and Settlement in Susanna Moodie's Poetry.” Canadian Poetry 40 (spring-summer 1997): 58-73.
[In the following essay, Thompson analyzes the use and placement of poetry contained in Roughing It in the Bush.]
Although some preliminary studies1 have been made of the poetry included in the early editions2 of Susanna Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush (1852), much is left to be said. The poetry is an interesting addition to the text, and an examination of Roughing It or of any single sketch ought to consider both the topic and the placement of the poems. The poetry, especially that written by Moodie herself,3 echoes contradictions apparent in the prose—as for example, the ambivalent responses to Canada. Many poems in Roughing It discuss the difficulties of emigration (the poet looks back to a lost English Eden), while others express an enjoyment of pioneer Canada. As a result, joy alternates with dejection, elegy contrasts with song. The placement of the poetry serves as textual commentary as well. At the head of a chapter, a poem or verse fragment may set a mood and/or introduce a topic to be developed at greater length in the subsequent prose. Concluding poems tend to be more problematic; generally longer (full poems as compared to excerpts), they may reiterate the...
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SOURCE: Gerson, Carole. “Nobler Savages: Representations of Native Women in the Writings of Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill.” Journal of Canadian Studies 32, no. 2 (summer 1997): 5-21.
[In the following excerpt, Gerson uses sketches and anecdotes from Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush to portray Moodie's image of Native women.]
In her 1986 essay, “‘Indians’: Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History,” American literary critic Jane Tompkins demonstrates the impossibility of establishing historical “truth.” She concludes that the post-structuralist reader seeking the history of European-Native relations can only navigate among the various and conflicting subject-positions of the recorders and scholarly interpreters of the past, ultimately recognizing that, like them, she herself necessarily operates within a limited perspective. Resisting the temptation to retreat to “a metadiscourse about epistemology,” she is left with the task of “piec[ing] together the story of European-Indian relations as best [she] can” (76), discomforted by the ease with which the academic mind can relinquish the pursuit of “what really happened” (60) in favour of a more abstract inquiry into how we think we know what happened. More recently, Stephen Greenblatt circumvents Tompkins's problem with historiography by focussing on the representative anecdote as “the principal register...
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SOURCE: Inness, Sherrie A. “‘An Act of Severe Duty’: Emigration and Class Ideology in Susanna Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush.” In Imperial Objects: Essays on Victorian Women's Emigration and the Unauthorized Imperial Experience, edited by Rita S. Kranidis, pp. 190-210. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998.
[In the following essay, Inness categorizes class ideology and insecurity as factors for Moodie's perception of the female emigration experience.]
“This colony is a rich mine yet unopen'd,” states Colonel Rivers, hero of The History of Emily Montague (1769), the first Canadian novel about the riches awaiting settlers in Canada. “Nothing is wanting but encouragement and cultivation,” he continues. “[T]he Canadians are at their ease even without labor; nature is here a bounteous mother, who pours forth her gifts almost unsolicited” (Brooke 1: 50). Rivers, a poor gentleman-soldier who emigrates from England, claims he is going to become “lord of a principality” in his new country that “will put [the] large-acred men in England out of countenance” (1: 3). Although Rivers is a fictional character, his grandiose views on Canada were echoed by many men living in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. For instance, William Catermole in his 1831 lectures in Colchester and Ipswich, England, painted a vivid picture of the benefits to be derived from emigration...
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SOURCE: Rukavina, Alison. “‘Of the Irritable Genus’: The Role of Susanna Moodie in the Publishing of Roughing It in the Bush.” Studies in Canadian Literature 25, no. 1 (2000): 37-56.
[In the following essay, Rukavina considers the publication history of Roughing It in the Bush, including motive for author and publisher and the process of revision for later editions.]
When Roughing It in the Bush was first published in 1852, it was advertised as a “glowing narrative of personal incident and suffering,” which would “no doubt attract general attention” ([Centre for Editing Early Canadian Texts; hereafter cited as CEECT] 669).1 While publisher Richard Bentley's announcement portrayed Susanna Moodie as a strong woman whose “warmth of feeling … beams through every line,” many other versions of the author's relationship to her work have since been constructed. Most recently, in The Work of Words: The Writings of Susanna Strickland Moodie, John Thurston argues that “Moodie is one hand among many involved in the production of this text” (134). This essay discusses how Roughing It in the Bush was transformed through successive editions as new collaborators, through excisions and additions, recreated the text to meet their needs and those of their audience. Before considering the book's complex publishing history, however, I need to reconstruct...
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Freiwald, Bina. “‘The tongue of woman’: The Language of the Self in Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush.” In Re(dis)covering Our Foremothers: Nineteenth-Century Canadian Women Writers, edited by Lorraine McMullen, pp. 155-72. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1990.
Highlights Moodie's role as maternal female narrator in the writing of Roughing It in the Bush.
Gerson, Carole. “Mrs. Moodie's Beloved Partner.” Canadian Literature 107 (winter 1985): 34-45.
Considers the role Moodie's husband, John Moodie, played in her life and works.
Lucas, Alec. “The Function of the Sketches in Susanna Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush.” In Re(dis)covering Our Foremothers: Nineteenth-Century Canadian Women Writers, edited by Lorraine McMullen, pp. 146-52. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1990.
Examines the autobiographical sketches in Roughing It in the Bush, arguing that they are an integral part of the text and should be considered as social history.
McCarthy, Dermot. “Ego in a Green Prison: Confession and Repression in Roughing It in the Bush.” Wascana Review 14, no. 2 (fall 1979): 3-16.
Examines Roughing It in the Bush as a work of despair, focusing on Moodie's expression of disappointment and fear...
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